Nearly a quarter century ago, a group of women accused a prominent playwright of sexual misconduct. For the most part, the allegations went nowhere. In 2017, in the midst of the #MeToo movement, more women came forward to accuse the same playwright of misconduct. This time, everyone listened. On this episode, we explore the story through the lens of social science research and ask, "Why Now?" What has changed in our minds and in our culture so that allegations of sexual harassment and assault are being taken so much more seriously than they were in the past? A note: This story includes descriptions of sexual harassment and assault. It may not be suitable for all listeners.
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00:00:00This is hidden brain I'm shankar vedantam A warning before we start today's show This episode includes accounts of sexual assault and may not be suitable for our listeners In twenty sixteen maya are manson sat down at her laptop to write a facebook post It was about a famous
00:00:18playwright israel horovitz She accused him of serious sexual misconduct He put this anger in me that i didn't have before and that wasn't going away and i couldn't let it rest within months Other women step forward with similar stories but yeah no he just locked the door and
00:00:41that nobody was there and it was and then he just never thought it would go this far and i went to the managing director and said i was quitting the theater world was quick to censure the playwright Several companies drop productions of this place He quickly resigned from
00:00:57the board of the theatre company that he'd founded israel horovitz was disgraced his career in tatters but here's the twist Twenty four years earlier another group of women had made nearly identical accusations and nothing happened thiss week on hidden brain we ask why now Why have so many
00:01:22women step forward to make accusations about sexual harassment and assault And why is the world finally taking them seriously In the mid nineteen eighties and jocelyn meinhardt was a high school student in new york city She was known for her sense of humor and her oversized vintage clothes
00:01:47she was dating adam horovitz a teenage musician from the band the beastie boys i went out with him from the tyres fifteen to seventeen after high school jocelyn enrolled at new york university to pursue a degree in dramatic writing one day in nineteen eighty nine she got a
00:02:04call it was adam's father the forty nine year old playwright israel horovitz israel was like i have a play and two tickets you know come to see it i was like this is weird and i don't even think before then i had seen any of his plays like
00:02:22i just had no relation he was just like my boyfriend's father johnson went to see the play with her new boyfriend sometime later she says israel invited her to have coffee she told him she was studying at in you and then you know he was like oh you're
00:02:37in dramatic writing school that silly should be like just writing and then israel made jocelyn an incredible offer he also shed liketo work the summer at his theatre in gloucester massachusetts he created a position for me where he was like you can come up and be like the
00:02:53samuel beckett fellow a plea writing fellowship at a professional theater company and get a stipend It was un riel a huge break for a nineteen year old student johnson says To top it all he told her he would take her under his wing teacher his craft So you
00:03:11went Yeah of course she went It was like a big heavy door was being thrown open beyond the endless possibility Ah it was really the first time i was going to be away from home like even summer camp up till then had been like two weeks you know
00:03:31i mean i remember like not knowing how to feed myself like i ate a lot of cereal that summer and candy bars so at the end of may jocelyn packed her stuff and headed up to the blue collar fishing town of gloucester the theatre company had rented a
00:03:47room for her with this really call senior citizen fisherman's wife who was really awesome jocelyn started settling in the next day israel showed up and was like hop in my car we'll drive up to my house i remember so clearly it was really foggy day so just everything
00:04:10about it was just creepy and it wasn't late in the evening i was just like dinnertime they drove through the fog to israel's house they went inside and that door the one she thought would lead to endless possibility slam shot we just locked the door and then immediately
00:04:30like stuck his tongue down my mouth and i remember just feeling so trapped and i remember looking out the window and thinking can i run if i left you know would anybody help me and wouldn't i wrote look ridiculous because i had walked into this house and israel
00:04:47could just say like oh she's mentally unstable or whatever you know remember this was before cell phones ubers and google maps instead of running jocelyn froze I felt like i was in shock like it was so shocking It was so shocking and this is my my ex boyfriend's
00:05:09father you know like i like But then i said i am not here for this I don't want to do this and he said this is an evident this was inevitable and i realized that like he wasn't doing it and i started to cry like you know i
00:05:28think come on i think clearly shouldn't have sex with somebody if they're unless they're crying for joy you know and so i do feel like on some level he knew what he was doing but yeah led me upstairs and i was crying And remember it's kind of seeing
00:05:46it from an aerial perspective no Well it wasn't grabbed by my hair and dragged through a park in the middle of the night could i describe it as rape like could i you know because i wasn't screaming and saying no no no no uh was that rape jocelyn
00:06:11didn't say a word to anyone i just thought defied tell people and deal with this i will have to go home and lose this opportunity and it felt i would have to deal with all this shame and embarrassment over what happened because didn't i know that this would
00:06:29happen so there's just seemed wiser to just soldier soldier on so that's what she did in the weeks that followed jocelyn tryto avoid israel's advances sometimes she succeeded but she says not always one of the times was in the room i was staying where i was also had
00:06:50my computer ups set up to write and he came over to help me with my play and then like put the moves on me and it was sort of like we have to have sex before i'm going to sit down and help you with your play and that's
00:07:04exactly what happened the other time he was like oh my office in town is a mess like come help me clean it up and then we're there so it was essentially like if he was alone with me in a place other than the theatre and other than his
00:07:22house which now had his kids and his twins and his nanny ah like if he could get me into a place and he was able to do that twice and both times i didn't fight him off and i did feel like i had made that decision like i'm
00:07:39just not going to tell anyone ever and i'm i don't want to ruin this opportunity so you know i thought i remember thinking at that time that you could absolutely forget things i was like i'm going to block this i'm not going to think about it and i'll
00:07:56be fine you know like i i didn't understand that that's not how the brain works for jocelyn asama became something to endure it was all made worse by the fact that the glass the stage company was producing a searing play about the trauma off rape it was called
00:08:15the widow's blind date the playwright israel horovitz the play tells the story of margie a woman in her thirties back when she was seventeen margie was gang raped by seven young men including her high school classmates george and archie she's now returned to her hometown in massachusetts to
00:08:35confront those two men Much of the play depicts a world where men casually demean women in one scene which we had an actor perform margie describes what it feels like to have her breasts be endlessly objectified First off the matter of my mammary glands my breasts my tits
00:08:55my boobs my jugs my knockers my set my funny valentine's My perfect little orbs They seem to be causing you some grief My breasts They've been quite something for me too Over the years to marquis it is all so exhausting You thinking it over archie and george i
00:09:16will gladly give my breasts over to you for whatever purpose you choose george you would wear them on the odd days archie on the evens and i'd be free to get backto work to get back to sleep at night Teo end the constant and unrelenting fondling I saw
00:09:34that play like five hundred times because that was the play that was being produced the summer i was there like the worst summer of my life And so it was really no it it's it's just so complicated and ridiculous because i basically had to watch a play about
00:09:51a woman who was raped confronting her avis and no and that's what part of you know i remember israel saying to me at one point like can you imagine hurting somebody like what that would do Like how ridiculous that is And i was just like you You have
00:10:06hurt me like i it just was such a mind bender We repeatedly reached out to israel horovitz via phone emails and letters We asked him about the allegations that jocelyn and other women have made against him and the apparent contradiction between the message of this play and his
00:10:27alleged behavior He declined an interview saying i'm recovering from two major cancer surgeries My play the widow's blind date states clearly my feeling about sexual violence against women which i find to be a boring and intolerable When we come back way look at the psychology of when people
00:10:51stay silent and when they speak up Stay with us Support for this podcast and the following message come from legal zoom who can help you make this the most memorable year to date Finally get serious about launching and running your business square away your family's future with the
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00:12:19at zip recruiter dot com slash brain this is hidden brain i'm shankar vedantam people often stay silent even when they want to speak up we may think something in private but say nothing in public this happens to individuals who suffered abuse this happens with entire nations duke university
00:12:42political scientist two more koran says that people pay close attention to public opinion and figure out that sometimes it's wiser to shut up the punishments for expressing controversial view cover a wide range at one extreme that could be a knock on your door at four o'clock in the
00:13:04morning and you could be dragged to prison could be taken to a concentration camp there are societies where that happens but there are much milder forms of punishment you khun be ostracised from a community you could be rebuked your career can be placed in danger and so people
00:13:25say one thing publicly on believe another thing privately two more koran calls this preference falsification when our views clash with what we perceive to be the prevailing currents we realise it's dangerous to openly express ourselves a good example is east germany during soviet control for decades communism survived
00:13:51by making populations it ruled afraid to express opposition to the principles of communism and expressed opposition to the dictatorships that were running soviet bloc countries The silence air on harvey weinstein sexual misconduct operated in the same way it was an open secret for decades we've learned in hollywood
00:14:21that in circles that harvey weinstein traveled in that he was a predator of young women but also that if anybody called them out on this he would ruin their careers There are ways to talk about our secrets ways to voice our truths while maintaining plausible deniability The best
00:14:45way humor This is from the sitcom thirty rock Don't do it j mo You don't want to miss what weird out please I'm not afraid of anyone in show business I turned down intercourse with harvey weinstein on no less than three occasions at five and several years ago
00:15:03at an oscar nomination ceremony set macfarlane told this joke the two thousand twelve nominees for best performance by an actress in a supporting role are sally field in lincoln and hathaway in les miserables jacki weaver in silver linings playbook helen hunt in the sessions and amy adams in
00:15:27the master Congratulations you five ladies no longer have to pretend to be attracted to harvey weinstein Did you hear that laughter everyone got it two more says when the soviet union tightly controlled these germany jokes were common there to jokes about the ageing soviet leaders jokes about how
00:15:52inefficient the soviet economy wass jokes about the hollow marxism wass but when the information about all of these deficiencies of the system were put in jokes the person telling the joke did not have to take ownership of the claims or they drew the line is with writing an
00:16:22article that would go into a newspaper that would put in words backed up by facts the deficiencies of the system that you were joking about there is power in the written word sometimes it takes a news article two tone whispered injustices into public outrage but this is where
00:16:46the story of israel horovitz gets complicated preference fortification was certainly at play and keeping women like jocelyn meinhardt silent but it doesn't explain everything in nineteen ninety three and envelope showed up in a boston newsroom in the mail box of a theatre critic they sort of plain white
00:17:06envelopes addressed to me this is burn marks he now teaches at boston university but back in the early nineties he was writing for the boston phoenix which is part of what was then a very proud tradition of alternative press is bill rowe theater reviews so when he tore
00:17:23open the envelope in his mailbox he was expecting what he usually received a hit note from a pissed off actor that is not what he found this was a different kind of note and essentially was a plea from an anonymous woman at the gloucester stage company saying that
00:17:42they were being molested that they were being you know sexually harassed by the artistic director that they remember that the note mentioned that they created a buddy system to protect each other and they wanted some help and it was really to me when i read it it was
00:17:57a cry for help bill was stunned he wasn't really a reporter let alone an investigative reporter and yet he says it felt like he'd been singled out to do something now he was being tested i wanted to check it out i didn't immediately go oh this must be
00:18:15true but i felt well i'm hearing this note it sounded authentic to me at least enough to where i wanted to start going out and talking to the actresses to see whether it was join up he started reaching out to women he knew had worked at the glass
00:18:29to stage company sometimes i would have to call two or three times at times they were reluctant they will say well i would like to talk that i can't talk now or let me think about this but slowly we're men began to tell him their stories to me
00:18:41there was a tremendous amount of a feeling particularly among the actresses that if this came out they would not get jobs they be labeled as being very difficult to work with s o that they're putting a lot on the line when they were doing this it's important to
00:18:55note that at this time israel horovitz was a big fish in a small pond he was an internationally known playwright running a powerhouse theater in an old gritty fishing town he had a bit of celebrity star power ah and used to drive around gloucester in a little sports
00:19:12car with a license plate that had author in and you know in in capital letters and he used to wear sort of a parade laura crook remembers that vanity plate she's one of the women who reached out a bill with a story to share they agreed to meet
00:19:28in his apartment we went in sat down and get me a glass of water and had his little tape recorder andi said you will start when you're ready in the summer of nineteen eighty nine she said she attended the glass to stage company's production off the widow's blind
00:19:44date she told bill she fell in love for the small black box theater and jumped at an opportunity to audition for israel the following year and i went in and i think i i didn't ask him if he went what he wanted or he said you know ok
00:20:01do the monologue and i want you to cry three times and i said okay and uh i did the monologue and i cried three times and than a couple days later they asked me if i would understudy and i said yes absolutely but even before she started the
00:20:19new gig a friend in the boston theater world told her hey china to be alone with him and i said okay you know that's gonna be she's like just trying to be alone with him once she got to gloucester another actress issued the very same warning trying to
00:20:37be alone with him rehearsals began one day as other actors worked on a scene israel called laura over and israel said hey why don't we go in the green room so we can work on your monologue on i said okay because that's totally normal there's nothing at all
00:20:56on absolutely normal to dio so we went into the green room andi sat down on the couch and i say so let's just read through the monologue when i start to read through it and and then he just was on me and he had his tongue in my
00:21:13mouth and his hand down my shirt and bye jumped up and made a joke i said ha ha that's not in the script huh he came at me again when i pushed him away and i don't know what i said then i think it's a lot of blood
00:21:32rushes to your ears in situations like that and just kind of figure out how the hell to get out of there laura says she wasn't the only one at the theatre fending off israel's advances so she walked out a buddy system with another woman israel didn't like lipstick
00:21:45didn't like red lipstick and so we had a tube of lipstick I had it in my box him a dressing table so we would always put on lipstick When he was around another time israel asked laura to come into the shop to hand her some notes Laura caught
00:21:59the eye ofa friend i mean through black comedy it was she was the technical director but she kept announcing that she was coming into the shop to get a tool of some sort like i'm going to get a hammer and that should go in and she got the
00:22:12shop back and walk out like she would not get what she was talking about and uh and then he would try to kiss me and then she would come back in and interrupt It was a kind of job a person would want to quit as fast as possible
00:22:25And yet when laura was asked back for another summer of work she said yes you know i've been thinking a lot about that a lot recently but i think over the years that i think about it I want it i want it to work like there's just not
00:22:47a lot of work out there i mean it's a hard job it's a hard career and he wasn't always assaulting you sometimes it had these really great conversations about showbusiness and theater and being creative and thie art that we all make on dso i just i wanted to
00:23:09believe otherwise they just try to make sense of it so that you can live in this world burn marks understood the dilemma laura and the other women faced i mean their careers were on they felt their careers are on the line that they would be labeled as difficult
00:23:26they be labeled as man haters they be labeled as you know somehow making things up without horvitz who apparently was telling everyone that this is just part of his sort of you know theater slash hollywood kissy kissy huggy huggy demeanor two off the women told bill that complained
00:23:42to the stage cos border directors but to their knowledge nothing has been done when bill reached out to the board president he was told the women stories didn't fit the legal definition of sexual harassment on august six nineteen ninety three the boston phoenix published bills article it included
00:24:00the stories of six women they chose to remain anonymous but said they would identify themselves if the paper was sued a week later the phoenix published a follow up story after four more women came forward Three when nanny's who'd walked in israel's house to me i i absolutely
00:24:18proved what was going on given the number of women in the activities Then you know when the second article came out and i was called all the nannies had called me and suddenly i had and you know some other women contacting me Then i felt that they have
00:24:33opened the floodgates Now they're definitely going to have to do something How can they ignore this but it was ignored officials of the theater recently said that in nineteen ninety three they conducted an investigation and crafted a new sexual harassment policy the theater said Israel flatly denied the
00:24:49charges and that the women who spoke to bill did not come forward to identify themselves But in bills article the board president is also quoted as characterizing the women has tightly wound Laura crook remembers being really angry and really sad But mostly like okay That's it okay I
00:25:18mean we're two years out of anita hill So we saw how that went It wasn't much of a surprise It was just yeah I hadn't thought about how much it hurt until now until all that resurfacing again What it is to be to know you're telling the truth
00:25:51and to be summarily dismissed Laura and jocelyn stories help us understand why the me to movement didn't take off twenty five years ago two more koran would call it preference falsification princeton psychology professor betty pollock cites a complimentary idea known a social proof when people are deciding whether
00:26:16to step forward and say something they look at what happened to others who stepped forward before them it's social proof at its most basic we want to know we wonder how we'll be treated if we step forward to blow the whistle on a certain kind of behavior and
00:26:34we need sometimes to watch someone else do it and to see what realistically are the consequences when laura and other actors reveal their stories and found it made no difference other women received a clear message shut up stay silent women especially used to watch other women report and
00:26:54maybe lose their jobs or just not be heard at all or be disparaged so that is the kind of social proofs that used to inform women's decisions about reporting sexual harassment another young woman said she met israel horovitz in nineteen ninety four iana mista ke was interning at
00:27:13a small theater in paris where israel was working She says he tried to kiss her and once tried to pull her into his bedroom When yana discovered bill marks his stories she received social proof about what would happen if she spoke out I had case based evidence from
00:27:33a ninety three article that came out that nothing happened to israel horovitz or the company or the board or anybody else who was responsible for enabling and protecting that behavior I knew that you put yourself out there and there will be nothing done other than you lose your
00:27:50job and you leave and you're bullied out of it Stay with us Support for this podcast and the following message come from td ameritrade You're always on the cutting edge of technology and td ameritrade prides itself on being ahead of the curve too with tools like their amazon
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00:28:38come from texas children's hospital Texas Children's hospital has provided care to children for more than sixty years and continues to lead texas and the nation in pediatric treatments and research With thirty thousand pairs of boots walking through the doors each year texas children's knows what it takes to
00:28:57make young cowboys and cowgirls feel right at home Locations and services can be found at texas children's dot org The same year that yana mistake he decided to remain quiet maya or manson's was born at st vincent's hospital across the street from israel horovitz his brownstone in greenwich
00:29:18village from an early age she was drawn to the stage she started out dancing it was maya's dance teacher who recommended her for a role in one of israel horovitz this place she was eleven years old everything about the theater and the playwright delighted her oh i loved
00:29:38him it was great yeah it's so much fun with him he was like a grandfather to me there was a running thing going on during the production if anyone cursed in front of me they had to buy me a toblerone bar so i you know got lots of
00:29:53chocolate off of him yeah it was great he invited my family i teo a boxing day celebration after christmas yeah i felt very close to him maya stayed close with israel after the production hey made her feel special well he's just always really kind hey always responded to
00:30:19emails extremely quickly yeah it was just a general sense of feeling that i wasn't just anybody else that i was valued and respected he wrote me recommendations for things he would help me he gave me monologues for auditions he was great he came teo at my request was
00:30:44the speaker at graduation for my middle school Pps the professional performing arts school fast forward a decade in twenty sixteen when maya was twenty one she was going through a rough time and feeling lost my cousin had died my cat had died i was going through relationship problems
00:31:05that just it was this swirl of of things that were just getting very difficult teo know how to deal with one day my around into israel at a reading of one of his place she told him what was going on in her life and he said to me
00:31:24don't worry i'm going to give you a cz many of my short plays to see one and you're going to produce them and that's going to be your project that's what's going to focus you and it was really incredible i thought that it was a beautiful offer a
00:31:41very cool offer i'd never produced anything before he was willing to help me so it was really meaningful maya considered it carefully she had to conquer her own doubts about whether she was up to it whether she could direct others not just be directed she decided she could
00:32:00so i e mailed him and i said that it would be great and within minutes i got a response with attachments to a town of of his plays and so began sifting through them to see which ones i wanted to dio maya eventually chose five plays toe work
00:32:15on she recruited an actor who was also interested in producing and they got to work they change language that felt dated they started working on casting maya wanted to get as much done as possible so that when she met with israel i could show him that i was
00:32:31actually invested in this and that i was putting the time in and i wasn't just waiting for him to tell me what to do finally maya was ready she wanted to talk production with israel at the time he was overseeing rehearsals at a theater in downtown manhattan he
00:32:45lives just a few blocks away from that theater and i live further uptown so i was saying i could go downtown to meet him it's not a problem and he insisted on coming up to my house he showed up a half hour earlier than they had arranged that
00:33:00threw me off a little bit but when she met him in the lobby everything seemed fine very friendly was very nice they went into her apartment and then the second that door closed behind him uh he's just it was like a switch had flipped he came and tried
00:33:18to kiss me and then he put his hands on my breasts and he pulled me to the couch in the living room and had me sit on his lap and then i got up and then he pulled me down again back onto his lap and he stuck his
00:33:33tongue in my mouth and i jerked away then he did it again He held my head in place then i tried to get up again and it was just sort of going around in circles like that maya grew up in new york and she thought of herself as
00:33:47tough but in that moment she didn't respond the way she would have expected i felt very self conscious and nervous of offending him um which is something to this day i can't believe that that's how i felt in the moment um but then he kept sort of trying
00:34:08to hear the conversation back to the play is back to the work back to the production and he interrupted me and he said before we get started i just have to say i've known you since you were so young and your breasts have just become so big and
00:34:21beautiful from and uh it it was so it was just impossible toe process what was happening that he was talking to me that way and it was very strange that he acknowledged in the moment how how long he's known me you know part of me was almost hoping
00:34:46yeah he's approaching eighty senile maybe doesn't quite understand who i am but in that sentence in that line that clearly wasn't the case maya tried again to explain her ideas for the place he had no interest in what i had to say about them he sort of had
00:35:03his game plan for how they should be done and then she says he tried to kiss her again and i said i have a boyfriend he said so i have a wife and then he said i'm doing this for you my you know i'm doing this for you
00:35:18because i love you i love you Do you know how much i love you Do you love me We needed to hear me say that i loved him back and then he told me no great woman ever became great by being a good girl maya says she kept
00:35:35resisting Eventually israel left when when the door closes behind him and he left what was going through your head I punched the kitchen wall and i sat down on the floor and i was just shaking with rage rage that wasn't there when he was in the apartment it
00:36:01was all very i almost felt like my eleven year old self dealing with him when we were face to face and the second i didn't see him anymore the second i got him out of the apartment i just couldn't believe i had just let him leave and had
00:36:18hit him it was a very very strange that moment for more than twenty five years israel horovitz was protected by silence women who tried to speak up was shut down the whisper network had turned thready and faint maya did not know about the accusations in israel's past but
00:36:40after the incident she called her friends she told her mother who quickly track down the articles for the boston phoenix and reading those articles changed something in me the description of what he did to them it was exactly what he did to me maya wanted people to know
00:37:00what had happened she called a prominent theater where israel often worked she says the director didn't call back it was radio silence for three months and then one day i saw on instagram actually a post of israel in rehearsal on stage for the play they were working on
00:37:20and it was captioned the man at work with a bunch of hashtags like genius love theater maya burned with a white hart fury i god so livid i couldn't believe it so she sat at her kitchen table and slammed out a post on facebook i asked her to
00:37:41read it for us in the beginning of june i had a meeting with the playwright in my home he is my senior by several decades i've known him since i was eleven i regarded him as an honorary grandfather maya described in detail what israel had done to her
00:37:55but did not mention his name she finished up the post this way and it hurts me that even though some people do know what he's done it doesn't seem to matter and there will be more women and some of them may be a lot tougher than me but
00:38:10some of them will surely be a lot less tough we've got to protect each other especially when it would be so easy for a woman to feel this was her fault that might have been where the story ended but then news broke a tape surfaced in which then
00:38:26presidential candidate donald trump bragged about assaulting women i don't use some tic tacs just in case it's that kissing you know i'm automatically attracted to beautiful i just start kissing them it's like a magnet i don't even wait and when your star they let you do it you
00:38:42could do anything whatever you want to grab it by the pussy it was the infamous access hollywood tape just the casual nature of it is They have a it's yeah it's he just you know he can grab women's bodies Israel grabs my body it wasn't mine they didn't
00:39:06see he didn't see it as mind Trump doesn't see it as the woman's by like it's theirs They have some ownership over it and and that really really upset me It still upsets me Maya watched in disbelief as donald trump was elected president I've just received a call
00:39:28from secretary clinton She congratulated us it's about us on our victory at that moment something snapped the day after trump's election maya re opened her facebook post i reposed it theory journal thing at the original that the piece that i wrote on i just put something at the
00:39:58top saying that in light of the election i'm ready to say the name it is the player eight israel horovitz mei i also felt compelled to find other women who had been through what she'd been through she had powerful tools at her disposal facebook twitter google it was
00:40:19a whisper network but on high octane one of the first people she connected with was yanna mistake he who had stayed silent about what happened after she met israel and paris in nineteen ninety four when she heard my story iana knew she had to speak up to it
00:40:36made me mad that it was still happening and that maybe if i had said something um maybe it would make a difference i don't know that it would've made a difference then but i'm raising two girls and ah you know i couldn't look at myself if i did
00:40:51my also did something else she contacted the new york times all over the country Powerful men were being toppled on charges of sexual harassment In late november twenty seventeen the times published an article detailing the stories of nine women who publicly accused israel horovitz of harassment and abuse
00:41:12in that article the playwright apologized but said he had a different memory of some of these events The reaction to this article was completely different than in nineteen ninety three The glass The stage company quickly sever ties with israel Other companies council productions of his plays His own
00:41:30son adam horovitz said he believed the accusations Not long ago i was talking to my wife over dinner about the story i was trying to understand why now why are women being heard in a way they were not heard before my wife ashwini tom bay researchers gender issues
00:41:50and recently wrote about this topic i'm an associate professor of women's studies at the university of maryland college park what she told me about was a theory off horizontal violence horizontal violence is when people turn on other people in their own lives when they are not able to
00:42:08actually effect change against more powerful targets it's a term used by the twentieth century psychiatrist and philosopher france for no he wrote about how people living under brutal colonial rule dealt with oppression because it's so difficult to attack or target colonial rulers what final found was that people
00:42:32were lashing against people in their own lives think about pressure building up in a container the energy needs a way to escape if it can blow the top off it might explode sideways i think that the election of donald trump has served as a trigger and it has
00:42:49provoked a great deal of fury in impatience because he represents for many people the ultimate unpunished predator phono used the term horizontal violence to describe rage that was misdirected or misplaced hush when he says horizontal action is a better term to describe how many women have channeled their
00:43:08rage over trump's election to call out the men in their own lives who sexually harassed them It feels very very important in this moment to topple those perpetrators who are within reach because at this moment trump remains unreachable Even though trump shapes the context in which enormous anger
00:43:30against misogyny and sexual harassment has risks maya has The same take is ashwini I think it's trump i think that's what it is clearly there's been something building for a long time but it's such a huge deal for the your leader leader of the free world tio tonight
00:43:55care about women that it's so unbelievable Laura crook was one of the women who came forward to speak to the press in nineteen ninety three Should it so again in twenty seventeen She still lives in plaster and she's grateful that her allegations were taken seriously this time around
00:44:16But when she thinks about what happened to maya she can get over the terrible cost off the delay But i just wish i wish It could have stopped it in ninety three It breaks My heart breaks my heart That so many women had to go through this when
00:44:41it's it's was unstoppable was absolutely stoppable Shortly before the fall of the berlin wall experts on both sides of the atlantic was certain that the soviet union would endure for many decades preference falsification blinded regimes to their citizens growing the satisfaction the pressure reached a breaking point in
00:45:09nineteen eighty nine it took authorities by surprise as protests of the berlin wall gain momentum the regime that once looked invincible suddenly look fragile preference falsification now started to work in the other direction very quickly defending the old regime became dangerous in exactly the same way many powerful
00:45:31men accused of sexual assault have found themselves without defenders even amongst their own families the social proof has changed in israel's play the widow's blind date margie goes back home twenty years after she was gang raped she wants to confront her assailants to hear them say they did
00:45:54something wrong twenty years after what she describes as the worst summer of her life jocelyn meinhardt the playwriting fellow who worked on that play in nineteen eighty nine men an appointment to meet with israel i just confronted him i said you know we're here he was just like
00:46:13oh it's so great to see you we should have gotten together and a lot has been too long with and then when we sat down for coffee i just said you know the reason i have a reason for it seeing you and i just want to talk about
00:46:24what happened and i didn't say rape i think you know i said i talked about the trauma i was like that was deeply traumatic it affected my whole life and it's affected my romantic relationships my relation you know just everything on dh he was like what you know
00:46:48just sort of taken aback jocelyn says israel apologized but in that non apologetic way when you know it's not it wasn't anything that landed and that he took her really took responsibility for it she says he suggested that what happened between them was not abusive at one point
00:47:08he was just like do you remember us like as if it was a romantic thing that i was just remembering wrong which was enraging and and the thing that really really sticks with manned really also was angering was just that you know you weren't under aged like because
00:47:26it wasn't because i was nineteen that made it okay yeah not long after my unnamed israel in her facebook post she received a voice mail matt maya this is israel calling i'm so of shed i don't know what you say i had no idea it's a terrible terrible
00:47:52misunderstanding it was a terrible mix mixed signals and i didn't know you were upset and i love you maya and i never never would hurt you that way never never never please you've got to believe me oh my god i'm just shaking somebody just wrote to me and
00:48:10told me about it i don't know what to say i'm so sorry and i love you and i would never never never hurt you that way That was such a miss single on such a oh my god it is no tow us israel said the widows blind date
00:48:31quote states clearly my feeling about sexual violence against women which i find to be a boer int and intolerable we ask actors to read some lines from the end of israel's play in the scene One of the men who raped margie tries to explain why he did it
00:48:50Nobody planted marquis it just happened Honest to god I mean well boys we're always talking about wanted to do it with this one and that one and everybody was always saying they'd love to do it with you because you were well beautiful but nobody really meant it jumping
00:49:14you it's just when george here well started everybody wanted to who everybody liked you you likes me art I did a lot and that's how you showed me you like i was tricked out of first i wass otherwise marking the first words you would've heard whispered in your
00:49:37ear would have been i love you because i did and i don't I do still mark something wicked I love you would not have helped This week's show was produced by jenny schmidt maggie penman and bath shot and edited by tara boyle and raina cohen Renee clark does
00:50:13our social media We had original music today from ramstein arab Louis laura see harris and eric messner perform the scenes from the widows blind date special thanks to patrice howard ashley messenger greg lewis chris turpin neil truth mark mammoth and anya Gunman This week's unsung hero is to
00:50:36rana burke In nineteen ninety seven twenty years before the meat to hashtag lit up social media toronto burke started a movement to help victims of sexual harassment and assault She called it me too while millions of people now know about the hashtag far fewer know about the woman
00:50:56who created the term Long time hidden brain listeners are familiar with the name maggie penman She's been a producer on the show since our inaugural episode back in september twenty fifteen It pains me to say that this is her last episode with us maggie's moving to boston to
00:51:13work at the wonderful public radio station wgbh Thank you maggie for everything that you have done to have bill hidden brain and we wish you all the best on your new adventures If you found this episode to be interesting or helpful we love for you to share it
00:51:30with others Please think of a couple of people who would like hidden brain and tell them about our show I'm shankar vedantam And this is npr As soon as you wake up you need the latest And that is why up first is here It is npr's morning news
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