Audio excerpt from The Storm Before the Storm: The Beginning of the End of the Roman Republic by Mike Duncan. Forthcoming Oct. 24, 2017. Pre-order a copy today! 



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00:00:00welcome to the storm before the storm and the Beast of Italy years ago today I posted my first episode of the history of rum would be a fun hobby that would last about 18 months and then I would get on with my life instead the show ran for five successful years then I took a gamble but the history of Rome come to its natural conclusion and moved on to Revolutions not really knowing if my audience would follow me but you did and apparently I need not have worried about that and I am coming up on my 4th anniversary at revolutions
00:00:46the two and a half years ago I was offered the opportunity to go back to my roots and write a book about Roman history which was a thrilling opportunity not just because it would take write a book off my lights to do list which is been there since I was about 8 years old it also gave me the opportunity to go back and see my old friends because though I ended the history of Rome and went and made new friends in the world of modern revolutions my love for Roman history has never subsided and it was great fun to go hang out with the old gang again so what you're about to hear is chapter one of the storm before the storm the beginning of the end of the Roman Republic by Mike Duncan forthcoming October 24th 2017 from public affairs it is available for pre-order right now at your favorite local bookstore or you can get it online at Amazon Barnes & Noble Powell's indiebound Books-A-Million wherever
00:01:40if you like what you hear today you can help me out a lot by going to preorder it cuz we want to get to 5,000 pre-orders to put it on the bestseller list so that everyone lets me write another book you can also find more information about this at revolutions podcast. Com or the newly revamp that is newly revamped as of today the history of Rome. Com that's just the history I finally secure the domain name and history makes it very easy to navigate The Archives of the history of rum that has is just probably what you always thought the history of Rome website should have been but never was and now finally is
00:02:21I will also take this opportunity to definitively answer a hearty yes to the question will there be an audiobook version you guys of course there's going to be an audiobook version and of course I will read it they would have taken a whole series of blunders to not release the book as an audiobook or even worse to have someone else read it course I'm going to read it I am working with the good people at Hatchet audio and it will be there for you in October don't worry it will be my very great pleasure to read to you what I have written just like I've always read to you what I've written in like I am about to read to you what I have written right now that is the very heart of our relationship but you are going to want to get the physical copy to write I mean if nothing else I think we can all agree to the book just looks really cool it's very aesthetically pleasing so even if you keep a highly curated Library physical books I can't imagine you're not going to want to get the storm before the storm the beginning of the end of the Roman Republic by Mike Duncan and put it up there on the Shelf
00:03:22okay so that's enough of that but just a setup what you were about to hear there is a prologue in the book that covers the backstory of the Roman Republic from its founding in 509 BC through the Imperial Triumph of 146 BC that's when the Romans sacked both Carthage and Corinth in the same year and directly Annex Greece and North Africa into the Empire The prologue focus is heavily on Skip-Bo emiliani's and talks about his relationship with the Greek philosopher polybius and then it explains polybius analysis of the Roman Constitution that explains the basic Republican institution also introduces the concept of moss mayorum which meant the way of the elders and as I say in the prologue even as political Rivals competed for wealth and power their shared respect for the strength of the client Patron relationship the sovereignty of the assemblies and the wisdom of the Senate kept the Romans from going too far when the Republic begin
00:04:22breakdown in the late 2nd Century it was not the letter of Roman law that I wrote it but respect for the mutually accepted Bond of moss mayorum
00:04:33in the prologue in says I just sat in 146 BC with emiliana sand polybius watching Carthage burn in fact the end of the prologue reads but as he stood watching Carthage burn skipio emiliana is reflected on the fate of this once great power overcome with emotion he cried his friend and Mentor polybius approached an FYI melee honest was crying what better outcome could any man hope for Emiliano's replied a glorious moment polybius but I have a dread for boating that someday the same Doom will be pronounced on my own country according to Roman tradition emiliana sting quoted a line from Homer a day will come when sacred Troy Shall Perish and Priam and his people shall be slain
00:05:19Amy Lee on his new that no power in doors and definitely that all Empires Must Fall than that there is nothing mortals can do about it
00:05:29after that you will turn the page and find yourself here
00:05:35chapter 1 the Beast of Italy
00:05:40thieves of private property past their lives in Chains thieves of public property in riches and luxury
00:05:48Cato the Elder
00:05:51Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus with watching is Carthage burned in 146 BC the teenager was on his first campaign and serving under the famous Commander skipio emiliani's a typical posting for the Scion I'm going to watch this family and The Rock I were an illustrious Family First & Noble by Tiberius his great-grandfather the family had risen in stature with each generation culminating with Tiberius his father from Libby called by far the ablest and most energetic young man of his time over the course of his story career Rockets the elderserve to console ships and was awarded to try it though his father died when Tiberius was just 10 years old the boy knew his father's exploits well he knew he had much to live up to
00:06:36Tiberius his mother Cornelia was herself one of the most respected matrons in Roman history she was the daughter of Scipio Africanus and wielded enormous influence inside the extended Skippy on a clan after her husband broadcast the Elder died in 154 Cornelia elected not to remarry even turning down a marriage proposal from the king of Egypt and instead dedicated herself to Tiberius and her other son Gaius she cultivated their education and hired renowned Greek tutors to expose the boys to the most advanced theories of the age in an apocryphal but telling story a wealthy noblewoman one showed off a set of beautiful jewels to Cornelia who herself pointed to Tiberius and his younger brother Gaius and said those are my jewels
00:07:23The Secret of a charity young Tiberius was admired for his intelligence and dignity he was possessed of quote brilliant intellect of upright intention and the highest Virtues Of which a man is capable wind favored by nature and by training a generous spirit and eloquent speaker tiberi's was on track to meet the high standards set by his father and become the leading man of his time
00:07:48to keep the family fortunes under one house Cornelia range for her daughter sempronia to marry her adopted nephew Amelie on us even though she did not like emiliani's personally Cornelia found him pretentious and did not think I'm worthy of the honor of being head of the family in fact much of Cornelius focus on her children was an effort to keep a melee honest from outshining her Jewel she pushed her son's Ambitions by reminding them that the Roman still called her the Mother-in-law of Amy Lee honest but not yet mother of the rock I
00:08:20despite all this family drama emilion his was obliged to bring his teenage brother-in-law Tiberius to the siege of Carthage in Africa Tiberius was exposed to the basics of military life by all accounts you perform well as a soldier or the respected the men and even want a covet award for being the first man over an enemy wall when Carthage fell in 146 Tiberius krakus was there to watch the city burn
00:08:45after Tiberius returned from North Africa Cornelia maneuvered him into a marriage with the daughter of a Pious Claudia's pulcher Tiberius his new father-in-law came from one of the oldest Patrician families in the Republic I have recently been named princess Senators a prestigious position that meant he was listed at the top of the senatorial role and was allowed to speak first in any debate
00:09:08but the marriage was not without complications Claudius was a bitter opponent of scoop you up in the only honest and Tiberius was now caught in the middle of their rivalry but that's at by his early twenties Tiberius position to achieve a preeminent that might even surpass his father he would well-educated well-connected and already recognized as a man with quote great force of character eloquent and dignity but unlike most Roman Tiberius would not win Fame on the battlefield fighting for an enemy instead he would win Fame in the Forum combating the domestic threat of skyrocketing economic inequality
00:09:47after the Second Punic War ended in 202 BC the economy of Italy indoor a massive upheaval the legions that conquered Spain Greece and North Africa return home with riches on an unprecedented scale a proconsul return from a campaign in the East during 137420 pounds of raw silver 600000 silver pieces and 140000 gold pieces Tiberius his own father returned from a campaign in Spain with 40000 pounds of raw silver this was an insane load of treasure that would have been unimaginable to The Frugal and I'll steer Romance of The Early Republic but by the middle of the second century BC Rome was rolling in the Mediterranean down
00:10:34which Roman spent their money on a variety of luxuries find carpets ornate silverware embellished furniture and jewelry made of gold silver and ivory the effects of this influx of wealth begin to concern some alert Senators as early as 195 Cato the Elder Wand his colleagues quote we have crossed into Greece and Asia place is filled with all the Lawrence advice and we are handling the treasures of Kings I fear that these things will capture us rather than we them
00:11:06every few years to send it would attempt to rain in ostentatious displays of well but the resulting limitations in negatively went unheeded and unenforced quote by fatal coincidence the Roman people at the same moment both acquired a taste for vice and obtain a license for gratifying
00:11:25but this story of fabulous riches leading to moral Decay only affected the small group of noble families who control The Spoils of War for the majority of Roman citizens the conquest of the Mediterranean mint privation not prosperity in the early days of the Republic Service in the legions did not interfere with US citizens ability to maintain his Property Wars were always fought close to home and rhythm with the agricultural season but when the Punic Wars spread the legions across the Mediterranean citizens were conscripted to fighting campaigns that drag on for years a thousand miles from home
00:12:02thanks to these endless Wars lower class families were quote burdened with military service and poverty and their property would fall into a state of terminal neglect Upon returning home and discharge Soldier was likely to find the time effort resources required to restore his land to its former productivity Beyond his means
00:12:23wealthy noble families exacerbated the sharpening divide between rich and poor as they look to invest their newly acquired riches they found thousands of dilapidated plots just waiting to be scooped up sometimes destitute family sold willingly happy to get something for property they could no longer afford to work for themselves but hold ounce Ruffin bullied into quitting their land as these newly acquired small pots combined larger State the Roman agricultural landscape began to transform from small independent Farms the large commercial operations dominated by a few families
00:12:59the plight of the dispossessed citizens might not have been so dire have they been allowed to transition into the labor force on the commercial Estates but the continuous run a successful foreign war brought slaves flooding in to Italy by the hundreds of thousands the same wealthy Nobles who bought up all the land also bought slaves to work they're growing Estates the demand for free labor plummeted Justice run in families were being pushed off their land as the historian theodorus observed Quote us a few men became extremely rich while the rest of the population of Italy grew week under the oppressive weight of poverty taxes and military service
00:13:38Tiberius first confronted the new economic realities early in life according to a pamphlet written later by his brother Tiberius was passing through Tuscany and observe the dirt of inhabitant in the country and that those who killed its oil or 10 digits flocks or Barbarian slaves
00:13:58this was the moment Tiberius first seriously confronted the need for economic and social reform
00:14:05this apocryphal story is no doubt a fine piece of exaggerated propaganda but it captures the essential dislocation of the poor families from their traditional way of life
00:14:18some of those dislocated citizen to migrated to the cities and search up wage labor only to find that slaves monopolize work in the cities to the most remained in their own Homeland forming a new class of landless pleasant who would continue to work their land as we are tenants and sharecroppers rather than owners their new landlord love the arrangement tenant Farmers to be used to produce low-margin cereals which would allow win words to save their slave for more lucrative crops like olives grapes politically-minded landlord had an added incentive to promote tenancy these peasants were main political client whose votes to be counted on in the assembly this new breed of poor tenant Farmers would be tied to their landlords forever unless someone came along and offered them away out
00:15:07exacerbating this economic and social dislocation was the Spanish Quagmire the Romans have gotten themselves stuck in when Carthage in Corinth fell in 146 running power seemed Invincible but Roman commanders in Spain had indulged ingredient Raza teas that continue to provoke stiff resistance from the Spanish natives so each year to send it was obliged to raise new recruits and ship them off to the Iberian Peninsula does servine campaigns of undefined length against an enemy who specialized in demoralising skirmishes as a reward for their service these conscripts would come home to find their Farms ruined
00:15:44William popularity of the Spanish War screw potential conscripts began to defy the consoles with no other recourse but they once again turn to the Tribune for protection the Tribune were the ancient Guardians of the plebs but over the past Century they had been co-opted by the Senate with citizens once again suffering under the arbitrary whims of the nobility the tribunes return to their sacred Mandate of protecting the people from abuse in both 151 and 138 aggressive conscription by the console's climax with the tribunes placing the consoles under arrest and they backed off the tribunes had every right to throw the consoles in jail but it was still a shocking challenge to Noble Authority
00:16:28the Senate attempted to mollify potential conscripts by making life in the Army a little less harsh the cab service at 6 years and gave Soldiers the right to appeal punishment handed down by their officers But ultimately this did little to improve the morale of the legionaries in Spain in 140 veterans who would serve six years were mustard out and replaced by Rob recruit these soldiers were quote exposed to severe cold Without Shelter man on a custom to the water and climate of the country fell sick with dysentery and many died
00:17:00not exactly something you can put on a recruitment poster
00:17:05has the Tribune's watch their constituents driven off the land or hauled off to fight in the Quagmire in Spain they took their first steps towards curbing the power up and Nobles for the entire history of the Republic citizens had declared their vote out loud making it easy for powerful patrons to ensure client voted the way that they had been ordered to in 139 a Trivium defiantly passed a law requiring secret ballot for elections two years later the secret ballot was extended to judicial assemblies it would take time for the effects of these reforms to be felt with the introduction of the secret ballot would prove a hammer blow to the foundations of the senatorial oligarchy
00:17:48Jermaine state of Italy in the 130s some among the nobility could see that there was a greater problem conscripts still had to meet a minimum property requirements to be a n Roll but with the rich pushing the poor off the land viewer citizens could meet the minimum requirement to be drafted the Romans had face crises like this in the past and responded by lowering the property requirements to bring more men under arms but by the mid 2nd Century many citizens could not even meet minimum standards of service the console were forced to rely on an ever-shrinking pool with men to fight Wars and Garrison the promises
00:18:27with all these social and economic problems swirling Tiberius krakus was elected Questar for 137 this was supposed to be eating routine for Step On His Ascent up the cursus honorum but instead it nearly ended tiberius's public career before that career even began
00:18:44attach to the command of console guys are still making us Tiberius landed in Spain in the spring of 137 to continue the war against the Newman teens account to Burien tribe who had managed to resist all ready temps pacification upon arrival Tiberius found himself caught up in one of the most embarrassing defeat the legions ever suffer the console mancinnis was far more a scholar than a soldier and the experience numantine gorillas ran circles around his clumsy Maneuvers after a series of poorly executed skirmishes making is attempted a strategic Retreat under cover of Darkness but discovered as the sun rose that his army was surrounded
00:19:23having fallen prey to Roman treachery in the past the new team leader demanded that young Tiberius Caracas be sent forward to negotiate while serving in Spanish generation earlier Tiberius his father had brokered an equitable peace treaty with the Newman teams and they remember the name Rock I entrusted the sun to play as Fair as his father on his first campaign and with as many as 30 thousand lives on Tiberius negotiated a treaty that allowed the legion safe passage out of the region in exchange for a pledge of future peace
00:19:55no there was little elf Tiberius could have done under the circumstances when Rome heard about the surrender Senators tripped over themselves be wailing the humiliating terms the Senate recalled maintenance and his senior staff to run to explain their cowardly capitulation though the embarrassed making his attempted to justify his conduct the Senate brutally smacked him down the strip making this of his consulship and ordered them deposited at the gates of numantia in Chains to Signal rums rejection of the treaty the Newman teens responded by sending making his back to Rome with a message that quote a National Bridge of Faith should not be a tone for by the blood of one man
00:20:36Tiberius in his fellow Junior officers escaped official Center for their role in the Scandal but that did not spare them a severe tongue-lashing tiberi's could not have expected to return home to a hero's welcome but the intensity of the invective the Senate laid on him seem disproportionate to his crime all he had done was save tens of thousands of men from certain death did the Senate really expect him to choose voluntary mass suicide in contrast to the self righteous Fury of the old man in the Senate when Tiberius emerge from the Senate house he was greeted by cheers from the families of the men he had saved
00:21:15walk iberia's licked his political wounds The Road to Redemption was already being paid by a group of senators intent on rebuilding the population of small citizens Farmers these were former senators were crafting a novel piece of legislation called The Lex agraria they would hopefully reverse the decades-long trend of growing economic inequality they believe they hit hit upon and ingenious method of redistributing land from Rich to poor without running afoul of the Ironclad private property right that define Roman law they would focus exclusively on auger publicus illegally occupied by wealthy squatters
00:21:55as you might have guessed from squinting at the Latin hog publicus was publicly owned land as the Romans conquered Italy they typically confiscated a third of a defeated enemies territory and turn it into state-owned are Republicans in the early days of the Republic this public land was converted into a Roman Colony but by tiberius's day it was usually least individual renters that would work the land in exchange for a portion of the produce to prevent Rich families from monopolizing the state lands the assembly passed a law that no family was allowed to lease more than 500 you get about 300 acres of public land but this prohibition was mostly ignored the magistrates tasked with enforcing the limits were themselves wealthy landowners occupying excessive public land so everyone colluded to get away with it together
00:22:47the legal ration out of the Alexa crary was simple the 500 you Garrett prohibition would be strictly enforced anyone caught occupy martyr publicus over the legal limit would be forced to relinquish the excess back to the state the excess could then be divided up into small manageable plot and redistributed the landless citizens since the whole point of the reform was to rebuild the class of small holders the bill stipulated that the newly-created plots could not be broken up and sold the authors of the Lex Aquarius did not want to hand a plot of land to a poor man just so he could turn around and sell it back to a rich man
00:23:27someone counter-intuitively the Senators crafting this piece of radical reform legislation we're not back bench agitators but rather some of the most powerful man in Rome the group was led by Tiberius his father-in-law happy is Claudius pulcher who was Prince upset it to joining him were prominent pair of brothers the wealthy jurist and Scholar who plays like Kenny is Crassus mookie honest and Publius mucus Kabbalah one of the most respected legal theories of his generation there other prominent senators and Rising young Noble surrounding claudius's group of performers among them what type of East Caracas
00:24:06historians one of the most controversial aspects of the Lex agraria is whether the authors intended only Roman citizens to qualify for allotments or whether the non-citizen Italian allies also qualified the Italians provided much of the Manpower for the legion and Tiberius himself was personally anxious about their plight quote lamenting that are people so Valiant in war and related in blood to the Romans were decimated little-by-little into poverty and positive numbers without any hope of remedy
00:24:38but whatever the original intent there is no evidence the Italians were ultimately included in the redistribution program it seems an obscure point but the fight over the Lex agraria was an early test of Roman willingness to treat the Italians as equals it was a test they failed
00:24:57historians also still argue about the motivations of the authors of the bill maybe they were acting on high-minded principal and simply wanted to restore the citizen farmer and rebuild the Manpower reserves of the legions but it could also be a while was cynically designed to add thousands of new clients to the political Network sahabat authors traditionally the man tasked with Distributing land absorb the families that benefited on to his client rolls and it is here that we might also detect the source of the intransigent opposition to the bill because with Alexa Korea proposed to do was take all the miserable tenant attached by default to their landlords and transfer their political allegiance to the quality and faction and intolerable shift of senatorial power
00:25:44a piece of legislation this controversial and far-reaching was not drafted on a whim Claudius cavola and Yuki honest would have spent years carefully picking through Roman law laying out how the survey process work and who would arbitrate contested claims but once the law was written they simply had to wait for the right time and the right person to introduce the bill and for that Claudius had his eye on his talented son-in-law Tiberius who was now trying to recover from The Shame of the new and Tina Fair
00:26:17all the authors of the Lex agraria waited for the right time to introduce their bill the unpopular war in Spain continued after the Senate rejected tiberius's treaty two more years of inconclusive fighting follow Morgan dead more Farms ruin or families dislocated all for no discernible game or purpose the people of Rome were getting fed up so just as they have done during the war against Carthage they turn to Skip-Bo Emilio Nest to end the war once and for all but they faced a similar problem they had face back then he really honest was technically prohibited from running during the carthaginian were 15 years earlier problem was that he was too young now the problem was that a law has been packed barring a man from serving more than one console ship in his career
00:27:04adjust is the assembly had voted in exemption that allowed emiliana stand for the consulship of 147 be Exempted Amelia honest from the prohibition of multiple consulships he was duly elected for the consulship of 134
00:27:19with his ability to secure special treatment from the assembly the career of a melee honest became a prototype for ambitious politicians in the years to come emiliana showed how easy it was to manipulate the mob to serve personal ambition inducing them to suspend inconvenient rules
00:27:37but that was not the only dangerous example of emiliana set during the campaign for the consulship of 134 he promised to raise new recruits from his own extensive client Network this could be on a were a major Center of political gravity and rum and many friends and allies readily agreed to accompany emiliana stew Spain among them Tiberius his younger brother guys
00:28:00raising a personal Legion of 4000 men emiliana she was able to depart for Spain without the need for forced conscription this was for the moment a welcome answer to an emergency situation but it also set the precedent of a powerful Noble raising a personal Army from his own client Network and army whose loyalty to the powerful Noble might outweigh their loyalty to the Senate and people around
00:28:26from the perspective of Claudius though emiliana says departure from Spain meant was that a formidable political opponent would now be absent from Rome for at least a year with his biggest rival out-of-the-way Claudius wasted no time just matching his son-in-law Tiberius krakus to Ram through the Lex agraria before anyone could stop it
00:28:49within months of emiliana says departure for Spain Tiberius krakus stood for the Tribune in the office was slightly been beat his standing and have a Newman Tina fair not dark and his prospects it is likely type berries would have moved right onto a need I'll ship to set up his inevitable runs for Prater and console but given the he had to overcome the shame of the debacle in Spain he could use his ears Tribute To Boldly volt back to the Forefront of Roman politics
00:29:18before Tiberius took office the claudian reformers floated the contents of Alexa Carrara to their senatorial colleagues but met with incredulous resistance after occupying the auger public how many years he's wealthy landowner said come to regard the public land as their personal property they had invested in it and proved it used it as collateral for phones giving it away is Diaries and the kweesta to their heirs the authors of the bill wrote a number of concessions to bless an opposition offering compensation for the auger publica seized giving clear title to be 500 gr that remain making allowances for larger families to hold more land but even with these concessions a large faction in the Senate plan to resist the bill no matter what to have their land confiscated in hand it over to the shiftless Rebel will simply out of question
00:30:11what the majority of the Senate hostel the claudians elected to break with moss mayorum and how Tiberius present the bill directly to the assembly without giving the Senate a chance to register their opinion there was no law stating that A bill must be presented to the Senate before it was introduced in the assembly it was simply the way things had always been done tiberius's provocative Gambit everyone on edge shortly after taking office in December 134 Tiberius appeared before the assembly and announced his intention to pass a law redistributing auger publicus from the rich to the poor
00:30:50according to Roman law after a bill was introduced three Market Days had to pass before it could be voted on with Market Days occurring about once a week the interval between the introduction and the boat could be anywhere from 1824 calendar days this delay allowed time for voters to make their way to run for the vote since Tiberius was tapping into a real resentment dispossessed citizen flooded into Brown over the next 3 weeks quote like Rivers flowing into an all receptive ocean even non-voting Italians came in to support the bill though they could not vote they could still register their physical and psychological support for land redistribution during these weeks Tiberius regularly address the citizens in the form to harness and solidify their energy he plan to have a large and eager majority in the assembly when it came time to vote
00:31:44after three Market days have passed Tiberius convene the assembly on the capitoline hill to consider the Lex agraria the space would have been packed with voters giving the area in front of the Temple of Jupiter quote the appearance of Stormy waves on the sea
00:31:59before the official presentation Tiberius defended The Lex agraria with the speech of his life The Rock I have been trained by the best orders in the Mediterranean and Tiberius perfected and irresistibly call Mom and dignified present on stage he did not piss the roster or beat his chest he stood perfectly still and allow the inherent force of his argument hold the audience's rapt attention according to Plutarch Tiberius composed himself in the center of the roster and delivered an impassioned defense of the common citizens of Rome
00:32:32quote the wild beasts that roam over Italy have every one of them AK4 Lair to work and he said well quote the men who fight and die for Italy enjoy the common air and light but nothing else houseless and homeless they wander about with their wives and children
00:32:52invoking the imagery of an Italian population dislocated by War and poverty he said quote it is with lying lips that their commanders exhort the soldiers in their battles to protect subcultures and shrines from the enemy but they fight and die to support others in wealth and luxury
00:33:09these ruinous Wars had led to an unacceptable irony for the average Roman quote though they are styled masters of the world they have not a single clot of earth that is their own
00:33:22after bringing the assembly to tears Tiberius requested the clerk read the bill in preparation for the vote that he would surely win
00:33:31but as it turned out senatorial opponent XXX Aquaria have themselves been busy over the last 3 weeks knowing they would lose the vote they had recruited Marcus Octavius one of Tiberius his fellow tribute to prevent the vote from even taking place one of the most powerful weapons of Tribune wielded was the veto which meant I forbid a Tribune could veto anything at anytime for any reason and not even another Tribune could overturn it so when the clerk Rose to formally read The Lex agraria Marcus Octavius step forward and Vito the reading out the bill everything stopped the vote could not take place until the clerk read the bill so as long as Octavius maintain his veto the bill could not be read and the vote could not take place
00:34:21with the proceedings ground to a halt Tiberius badgering the assembly for the day
00:34:28after failing to avoid senatorial opposition with a generous Spell Tiberius and his claudian backers decided the best play was to Rally his popular Bass by making villains of the rich Tiberius stripped out the friendly concessions before the next boat so that Alexa Gregory it would be quote more agreeable to the multitude and more severe against the wrong doors with lock pressure from the populist Woodforest Octavius to give up his veto and allow the bill to come to a vote vote they will most surely win
00:35:00in between sessions of the assembly Tiberius and Octavius came every day to the form to debate the merits of the Lex agraria the form is not a large area and like the stages at a music festival there were few roster is available for speech-making and Their audience is often overlap in such Close Quarters Tiberius and Octavius often engaged each other directly in debate as Tiberius grew more and more exasperated you promise to purchase all the auger public has Octavius owned at a fair price if Octavius would drop his opposition to the bill hinting that Octavius is opposition with rooted in Christ self-interest rather than high-minded Publix Spirit but Octavius refused to give up
00:35:42what traditional debate and persuasion failing to break the deadlock Tiberius turn to radical action Tiberius promised he would beat out every piece of public business until Octavius relented when he marched up to the Temple of Saturn and lock the state treasury with his personal seal so the quote none of the usual business was carried out in an orderly way the magistrates could not perform their custom duties just came to a stop no contract was entered into and other sorts of confusion or disorder where right everywhere
00:36:14Tiberius and Ratchet it up the dramatic atmosphere further alluding to reports that his enemies plan to assassinate him you now carry a concealed short sword in his cloak and surrounded himself at all times with thousands of dedicated followers
00:36:29but when the assembly once again convene to consider the Lex Aquaria Octavius remained intractable he vetoed the reading of the bill again and the session descended into a fiery storm of mutual denunciation to senators and step forward and ask the deadlock Tribune's to put the matter before the Senate Tiberius still had some hope that said it might help broker a deal there was no question that if the wax agraria came to a vote it would pass by an overwhelming margin when passed Tribune's had Levy Beto's against popular bills they withdrew it after expressing their symbolic disapproval but no one had ever permanently divided the people who will buy the traditional force of moss mayworm Octavius should have allowed to vote on the Lexicon area to proceed never before had a Tribune so obstinately block the clear will of the people Shirley the Senate would induce Octavius to withdraw his opposition
00:37:26rather than mediating a fair compromise the assembled Senators took the opportunity to keep abuse on Tiberius just as they had after the Newman Tina Fair there's no record of who said what but happy and reports that Tiberius was quote upbraided by the rich not only did they fail to pressure Octavius into accepting a compromise to actively joined in the attacks on Tiberius Senators opposed to The Lex agraria no doubt railed against the contents of the bill Tiberius is political tactics and probably his personal character the meeting ended with no resolution to the dilemma and Tiberius himself angrier than ever
00:38:05unable to make Headway by traditional measures Tiberius introduced in unprecedented bill at the next scheduled assembly
00:38:13arguing that a Tribune who defy the will of the people with no Tribune it all Tiberius moves at the assembly depose Octavius from office
00:38:22there was no law that said a Trivium could not be to post from office but the proposal broke with almost mayorum no Tribune had ever induced the assembly to depose a colleague it was unheard of but Tiberius once again pack the assembly with his supporters who now ominously surrounded the rostra and dare to anyone to stand in their leaders way
00:38:43not wishing to spark a riot Octavia settled on principled martyrdom rather than suicidal intransigence and did not veto the deposition Bill the assembly was free to depose him if they wished and Tiberius called on the voters to prepare to vote
00:38:59for the purposes of voting the Romans were divided into 35 tribes that would each receive one Collective vote individual members of a tribe would file through the building stalls and deposit their ballot in Inferno when they were finished the balance would be tallied with the majority opinion determining the single Collective vote of the whole tribe then the process would repeat for the next tribe until a majority of tribes was reached
00:39:25when the first tribe completed their ballet The Herald announce the result one vote to depose
00:39:33set a timer. Understood that he was supporting and unprecedented attack on a fellow Tribune he halted the proceedings after this first boat and begged Octavius to withdraw his detail but Octavius refused the next 16 tribes deposited their ballots and every single one voted in favor of deposition on the brink of Victory Tiberius again halted the proceedings and gave Octavius one last chance to stand down Octavius again refused the 18th tribe than cast their ballots when they were done the herald announce that I majority had been reached Octavius was Ostrom office
00:40:10script in distributed Octavius no longer enjoy the protections of his office and found himself menaced by the looming mob he was only able to escape thanks to a group of friends who push their way through the crowd and asked where did Octavius out of the assembly
00:40:26the deposition of Octavius was a decisive turning point in the battle over the Lex agraria until Tiberius took this fateful step he still enjoyed a great deal of support from his fellow tributes and Senate or the Packers but this Reckless assault on a fellow tribute made Tiberius toxic to the naturally conservative Elite his father-in-law Claudia stuck with him but many others who would supported the reform in theory work Pappy to lay the bill of side in the face of Relentless opposition let things cool off and then try again in a year or two later but Tiberius could not afford to lose his future career depended on passing Alexa agraria so he was willing to go to any length to push it through and for the moment and it worked Tiberius Rockets won the battle with Octavius out of the way the assembly overwhelmingly passed the Lex agraria
00:41:16controversial and Bill was now law
00:41:22Deluxe agraria called for a panel of three Commissioners to survey the auger publicus determine ownership and parcel Outland to make sure the job was done properly and to monopolize political credit for the distribution plant Tiberius induce the assembly to a lack Tiberius himself his father-in-law Claudius at his 21 year old brother guy us to serve as the first three land Commissioners so far so good but Tiberius soon learn that passing the law and enforcing its Provisions for two very different things
00:41:55unable to prevent a bill from becoming law conservatives in the Senate hit back with their own bag of tricks this opposition would now led by the pontifex Maximus poopiest skipio NASA to help from a more conservative branch of the Skippy on a plant that's like a personally possessed far more than 500 Agera of auger publicus so he engineered and insulting blow the new land commission it was the Senate's responsibility to appropriate funds to pay for the men in material necessary to complete the surveying work which required a small army of secretaries clerks surveyors Architects carts at mule urging the Senate voted a pittance to cover merely the daily expenses of the Commissioners themselves this calculated stinginess left Tiberius the captain of a boat with no Wars it was infuriating there was nothing he could do about it
00:42:52shortly after being dealt this blow one of tiberius's closest supporters suddenly died and Foul Play was suspected the increasingly paranoid Tiberius already kept his family surrounded by an informal group of friends and clients who acted as a permanent bodyguard and this protection now seem more necessary than ever
00:43:11whether he was just playing for the crowd or genuinely afraid for his life Tiberius Don morning Garb and brought his children to the assembly where he quote beg to the people to care for them and their mother saying that he despaired of his own life
00:43:26but then fate intervene to alter the course of Roman history and as well so often be the case domestic rum and politics were shaped by event Barbie on the shores of Italy in this case a far-off event what's the death of King at August 3rd of pergamum
00:43:44purnama for the Greek Kingdom occupying what is today the Aegean coast of turkey that had been allies of round for close to a century since came to Thomas the third had no sons and believed his death would lead to a better power struggle among his potential heirs he will is in Tire Kingdom and Royal treasury to the people of Rome
00:44:04Rome learned about at all his death shortly after the passage of the Lex agraria and Tiberius himself was among the first to be told of the terms of the will Tiberius his father had one served on a senatorial Embassy that confirmed the alliance between Roman pergamum and when the envoi bearing king of Thomas's will arrived in Rome he stayed in the Rock iHome one step ahead of his enemies Tiberius can be in the assembly and announce that because of hollis's Will said quote let the Roman people be air to my estate the both the disposal of the royal Treasury and subsequent Administration Avenue Providence would be handled by the assembly then Tiberius announce that a portion of king of tallest is Royal treasury would be used to fund the work of the land commission and even provide start-up capital for the new one
00:44:54this bold Gambit sent conservatives in the Senate through the roof by every right of custom the Senate enjoyed full discretion over both state finances and foreign policy polybius a close student of the Republican Constitution said the Senate quote has the control of the treasury all revenue and expenditure being regulated by it and quote it also occupies itself with the dispatch of all Embassy sent two countries outside of Italy for the purpose of settling differences the people he said quote have nothing to do with it
00:45:31are laying claim to pergamum Tiberius was attempting to Russell both away at the same time the Senate met me Furious action to denounce Tiberius as a reckless demagogue aiming to make himself a little desperate
00:45:45soon after either to retain the legal immunity his office provided or to protect the Integrity of the land commission or both Tiberius made another shocking announcement he was going to run for reelection
00:45:59no law for beta Tribune from serving consecutive terms but the overwhelming force it most mayorum made his bid unprecedented to his political enemies this was iron clad proof that Tiberius plan to make himself a tyrant if he controlled the state finances distribution of property foreign policy and claim the right to permanent reelection Tiberius sempronius krakus would be the king of Rome in all the name
00:46:28unfortunately for Tiberius his political strength was at an all-time low was December elections approached in 133 during the battles Over The Lex aquarium he had been able to count on a solid block of rural voters to stand with him perhaps it was because Harvest was then in full swing that Tiberius had difficulty reading mobilizing his supporters for another contentious vote just as likely however is that conservatives now decided that Tiberius must be denied re-election at all cost
00:46:58if they let it be known that they no longer a post-electric area and land redistribution would go forward weather tiberias was tripping or not the urgency of the coming election would be under cut and many voters would stay home
00:47:12without his usual base of supporters Tiberius turn to the urban population for the votes he needed the land redistribution had never been as much interest to the urban plaps so Tiberius brought his platform to include further limit on military service the right to appeal the vertex of judges and barring senators from serving on juries this last Drew one of the great political battle line to the late Republic know for the moment it was an empty suggestion not yet acted upon
00:47:43ever dramatic Tiberius. Black mourning clothes in the lead-up to the election Hennigan went around with his children securing pledges from his supporters to protect them if something were to happen the night before the final election Tiberius slept surrounded by armed bodyguards
00:48:00early the next morning Tiberius his supporters packed the area near the Temple of Jupiter on the capitoline hill to ensure they control the voting space accompanied by bodyguards Tiberius himself arrived and was greeted by cheers and Applause from the crowd what opponents of Tiberius arrived they found themselves unable to push through the program and MOB prevent it from accessing the voting stall with the antique rocking vote heard the call for the tribes to begin voting scuffles erupted on the edge of the crowd as opponents tried to push their way in the fighting halted the voting
00:48:35meanwhile the Senate convene for a session in the temple of fetus located just around the corner on the capitoline rumors swirled the Tiberius had to post all the other tributes and Was preparing to assume Regal Powers the console presiding over the Senate that morning was none other than mucus cavola one of the authors of the Lex agraria nausicaa and the hardliners in the Senate demanded skaville what do something with the console replied that quote he would resort to no violence and would put no citizen to death without a trial if however the people under persuasion or compulsion from tiberias should both anything that was unlawful he would not regard this boat as binding
00:49:18this was not good enough for the incense NASA kahoot Rose and response and said quote those who would save our country follow me masicka then dandi formal attire the pontifex Maximus and put himself in the head of a mob of like-minded senators and client together they marched to the Temple of Jupiter has weapons were not permitted to be carried inside the plumeria the Sacred City Limits nasica and his followers arm themselves mostly with table legs and other bludgeons though the coming attack was not premeditated it was clear they were willing to use Force to beat back the mob trying to make Tiberius Gracchus king of Rome
00:49:57meanwhile up on the roster on Tiberius was warned about the approaching mob
00:50:02Tiberius has been turned and ready for battle but hesitated when they saw the mob included senators and was led by the pontifex Maximus himself
00:50:12though the Crockin started to give way nassikas men aggressively pushed and beat the crowd anyway once the shoving and hitting began tiberius's supporters naturally fought back leading to a line of classes throughout the assembly the casualties in the resulting melee were entirely one-sided tiberius's people were unarmed and made easy targets for nassikas gang trapped in the confined space in front of the Temple of Jupiter many were Trampled Under Foot or fell to their deaths off the Steep Cliffs of the capitoline wooden desk cleared 300 people play dead
00:50:49printable Target of the attack was of course Tiberius himself and it didn't take long for the reactionary Senators to locate their prey near the entrance of the Temple of Jupiter Tiberius tripped over the body of a man who had already fallen and before he could get up he was set upon by fellow Tribune and a senator
00:51:08though he was a tribute and allegedly sacrosanct these two men proceeded to beat Tiberius krakus to death with the legs of a bench
00:51:17as the historian Appian record quote so perished on the capital and well still Tribune krakus the sound of a krakus who was twice console and of Cornelia daughter that's kid joke. Carthage of her Supremacy he lost his life in consequence of a most excellent designed to violently pursued and this abominable crime the first it was perfect rated in the public assembly was seldom without parallels there after from time to time
00:51:49it was one of the bloodiest days and Roman political history so Plutarch Over States things when he says quote this is said to have been the first edition at Rome since the abolition of royal power to end in Bloodshed and citizens living memory Roman politics had always been waged without resorting to violence now hundreds of citizens late dead on the capitoline hill what everyone felt about Tiberius krakus and his Lex agraria it must have been a shocking sight
00:52:19the principal cause of the crisis of 133 was a dangerous game of mutual brinkmanship Tiberius had bypass the Senate so Octavius be told the reading of the bill so tight. Shut down all public business when Octavius remained intractable Tiberius deposed him from office so the Senate deny the land commission money to operate so Tiberius seized on the bequeath from pergamum and it ran for reelection call of this culminated with nasica leading an armed mom to kill 300 people and just a few short months a simple land redistribution Bill had escalated to Violent Massacre
00:52:59the senate make no apologies for the attack Tiberius and his dad supporters were denied traditional funeral arrangements and dumped on mass into the timer this was in itself a shocking front to tradition The Rock I were still a powerful Noble family denying their son a proper burial was fraught with religious and social implications of the story was now that I. Have been trying to make himself King the most taboo a political offices and the Senate determined that they could not afford a funeral becoming a venue for renewing violent revolution
00:53:34with all the taboos of Boss me or I'm not breaking down left and right quote this was the beginning in Rome of civil Bloodshed and of the license of the sword
00:53:44the definitive Triumph of force was a lesson no one could unlearn as the ancient Greek historian delays petricolous later observe quote president do not stop where they begin but however narrow the path upon which they enter they create for themselves a highway where are they may Wonder with the utmost gratitude no one thinks of course is bass for himself which has proven profitable to others
00:54:15okay so that's the end of chapter one then you would turn the page and go on to chapter 2 the stepchildren of Realm it's pretty good so far right well if you are and would like to follow that new highway whereupon men like dice krakus Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius sulla wandered with the upmost latitude go to Revolutions podcast. Com the revamp history and find details about how to pre-order recording and sharing this chapter with you all has been a wonderful way to celebrate my 10th anniversary back of my old friends back where it all started thanks to public affairs and hash it for their amazing support and hopefully when this book comes out it will be a success and keep me on track for 10 more years of podcast and books and whatever other new and interesting opportunities come along if you have popped up some of them are very interesting and I think you will in
00:55:15the mall

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