ABOUT THIS EPISODE

Following his conquest of Constantinople, Mehmed sets his eyes on new conquests: namely the destruction of Serbia.
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TRANSCRIPT

00:00:09welcome to the Bulgarian History Podcast episode 64 the siege of Belgrade
00:00:41once again no new patreon supporters but as always feel free to support or just get in touch you know I I recently got a couple emails from listeners I need to respond to but it's always really nice when you guys reach out tell me you're doing the podcast ask questions whatever it is so I always feel feel feel free to just shoot me an email or a Facebook message
00:01:03no ass time
00:01:04it finally happened after teasing the possibility basically since the beginning of this podcast Constantinople Has Fallen
00:01:14the Byzantine Empire is over this time for good and with it the Ottoman Empire acquired its third Capital after Bursa and adrianople
00:01:26but it also acquired Prestige the sultan could claim his Empire as the new Rome now of course the Holy Roman Empire and later the Russian Empire would certainly can test that claim but still
00:01:40you know the Ottomans had some possible way to claim that they were now the Roman Empire the bay where the new kind of Grand Empire of the western world
00:01:51at the same time remember the ability of the West to mount a new Crusade against the Ottomans with severely limited after two recent failures
00:02:01or at least that's what you'd imagine but somehow once again hungry is being run by John Hannity and he does not follow the rules of his age
00:02:13no course following the fall of Constantinople we won't we're not surprised that the pope called for new Crusade but time would tell it to whether or not hungry or any other European powers would actually be capable or willing to muster the strength to mount another Crusade
00:02:30but in the meantime Sultan mehmed II now commonly known as mehmed the Conqueror was to be honest I'll send it to Chief to the great dream of his Royal house but he wasn't about to rest on his Laurels who's now 1453 and then we have to remember was just 21 years old 21 years old he's full of useful energy and he was yearning for more more Conquest greater Empire greater power greater Prestige more titles all of it he wanted more we have watched him alongside his father Rule and Conquer and go on campaign since he was a child basically
00:03:15lemon was born for this
00:03:19but before he could head off to his next Conquest he had an old enemy to deal with skanderbeg
00:03:27the Albanian leader had been in Italy meeting with the Pope to discuss the next steps in the wars against the Ottomans in the spring of 1453 as men that was in the midst of his great conquest of Constantinople skanderbeg was mounting a defensive on ottoman Macedonia with the backing of his vassalord Alfonso V near the city of tetovo skanderbeg met and ottoman Army of about 14000 soldiers under the command of his old friend from Audubon service Ibrahim Pasha
00:03:57it's going to be attempted to draw his opponent into a trap by retreating but Ibrahim news going to bed well and he didn't take the bait
00:04:06instead he moved into dipolog Valley and made Camp abandoning his original plan of setting up an ambush scanner bag was forced to prepare for an attack
00:04:17despite Stormy Weather the albanians launched the Cavalry attack which broke into the ottoman camp and cause great chaos
00:04:25in the midst of that chaos skanderbeg challenged his old friend to a duel
00:04:31skanderbeg won the heading Ibrahim Pasha and displaying his head on a pike
00:04:37the resulting panic in the ottoman ranks allow the Albanian forces to completely route them killing several thousands
00:04:45quick note I did find some conflicting information about this era in Albanian history but all the original sources are in Albanian and so this is kind of my best guess at the events following this from the sources I could find so
00:05:00soon after skanderbeg victory at the Battle of pelog completed his conquest of Constantinople
00:05:09realizing this quickly raised the alarm of yet another ottoman Invasion gathered money and troops from Alfonso in the pope receiving soldiers and money from both of them to 8 because well who is clear you don't have no grudge against Ghana base scanner back again to make its thorn in his side and now but with the constant conquest of Constantinople it was now quite possible and likely them I would turn a full-size Autumn Invasion Force towards him so well the Albanian tattoo prepare
00:05:45but in the meantime that clearly felt that while he could do more to be skanderbeg won't basically he had the resources to mount two offenses offenses at once without much of a problem and so be prepared for an attack on Serbia nope remember the desperate of Serbia Dora Brockovich actually work against the crusading hungarians and albanians in order to preserve Serbia's Independence as well brockovich's daughter had actually been married to Mehmet so for years previously and soap nemetz invasion of Serbia seems a bit strange but well let's be frank I mean the fact that the Serbian just what is for very opportunistic reasons as of helping the Ottomans doesn't really in any way diminishment Mets desire to conquer Serbia we seen time and time again that while the ottomans are pretty happy having a loyal vassals I contribute money in soldiers that's really for them kind of a temporary
00:06:45situation for the Ottomans it's like before they have the capabilities to mount a full Conquest annexation they'll accept years or even Decades of vassalage but once they have the resources they'll find any excuse doesn't really matter whether or not the vessels been loyal but they will conquer
00:07:05in fact Serbia hadn't been an entirely loyal Basile state paid position for years following the Last Crusade a line with hungry and not always consistently paying its tribute to the Ottomans and honestly it seems like brown, it's really just needed a pick a side and was now facing the consequences of his inability to do that
00:07:28around early 1454 Mehmet send a demand Brockovich he demanded full control of all Land Based on minutes marriage to brockovich's daughter unsurprisingly this was refused and an army was dispatched from idiot towards Serbia ready to conquer it
00:07:50but while all this is been going on John honi honi have been Gathering his own army that army was ready to fight right about the time then it was on his way to Serbia and so the hungarians marched South to meet them
00:08:05did the Ottomans had already begun the siege of some edible the the surfing capital of the time when the hungarians arrive to assist served
00:08:15Hungarian arrival Force the Ottomans lift The Siege although they continue plundering the countryside until a smaller on an ottoman Army was met and defeated by on yachty it seems the hungarians been invaded ottoman territories and devastated vegan before heading back into Serbia but I kind of found scattered references to the Ottomans eventually taking the Serbian capitalism terrible and it's made mining Center & Noble Bordeaux but honestly the details of unclear
00:08:46but we do know that while the Ottomans were on the offense of inserbia skanderbeg was actually on the defensive in Albania remember back in 1449 the ottomans at secretly scale the walls of the important Central Albanian Fortress of Bharat during the night slaughtering the Garrison in taking the city I'll attach a photo of the Fortress I took while traveling through Albania in 2010 on the website so you can go check that out seriously been out to the super cool skanderbeg had around 50,000 soldiers along with some artillery from Eragon and he laid Siege to Bharat and tried to cut a pound it into submission
00:09:25soon believing it was only a matter of time before the city and its tiny Garrison fell skanderbeg left with most of his forces
00:09:33however shortly after this and ottoman relief Army of 20,000 soldiers ride completely taking the albanians off guard
00:09:42W albanians managed to hold out until skanderbeg could return where Bond he defeated the Ottomans but the Albanian losses by this point we're significant scanner back and lost over 5,000 of his initial 15,000 including nearly all of his foreign troops along with their Advance knowledge of sea Warfare
00:10:01remember the Ottomans could basically they could lose Army after Army Small Arms that is in Albania but you'll be needing some selves their soldiers were far more precious they didn't have the Manpower resources to just replace them the way the Ottomans could so in light of these losses skanderbeg was forced to abandon the siege of the. So in essence he had won the battle with the release Boris but it failed in his Siege
00:10:27so those losses of Manpower knowledge were substantial enough to have a lasting effect on skanderbeg war against the Ottomans
00:10:36name of the fault that you're 1455 trade resumed between hungry and filakia signaling Improvement in these relations we haven't talked about them for a while but there were some awkward fighting between the two however blocking voice then retook territories which Kennedy had Conquer 3 years previously in spite of their Alliance
00:11:01how deep was Bo Bice me he had enough at this point he was quite angry over vladislaus actions and angry over the continued bad relations between hungry and block you and so somehow he got he decided to change his support from vladislav to Vlad the Impaler remember the guy Dracula is based on no support and so he will face be sought revenge for the losses he had suffered on behalf of himself and his family against ladislav so just to recap a originally supported what is left against Vlad the Impaler Wireless Lubbock supporting Vlad the Impaler against vladislav
00:11:46so in response to this glorious life began actually working with the Ottomans and even rated Hungarian territory in Transylvania with their backing
00:11:56yeah honestly feel lucky politics are very confusing to me at this point like everyone's biting everyone it's always very confusing with the Hungary in the Ottomans is the main kind of external forces but that's how it stands at this moment
00:12:10maybe early months of 1456 King ladislaus visited Buddha remember what his house he is technically still king of hungry even though he doesn't really do anything and Lil yachty runs the show. Well yeah he is visiting Buddha the king along with some Nobles actually accused 1 yaari of abusing his authority not a terribly unreasonable accusations this point to be honest but they reconciled in time for on yachty to kind of go off and deal with bigger problem because at that time the Ottomans were back in hungry and had an army double the size of the previous one so it seems that lady's house was attempting to kind of assert his authority and hungry but when the Ottomans arrived well she had to kind of let it go forward to lose when you're such a brilliant Commander with such a great long experience biting the ottoman so you know bygones be bygones
00:13:05let us new ottoman Force completed the conquest of Smith & Noble Berto in Serbia but we do know is that at that point it seems to be headed straight for Belgrade then it important for Chris which belong to hungry and kind of marked the border between Hungary and Serbia
00:13:23no quick Point well all that was going on the pope once again called for a general Crusade against the Ottomans but no big surprise here the power of Europe's had really no interest in the whole endeavor
00:13:36so interesting enough money, and people were encouraged by The Franciscan order to go fight in this great Crusade the pope was calling until in the summer of 1456 a great Army assembled near Vienna but an army of more common people as this was happening the Ottomans begin their Siege of Belgrade
00:13:56Kenyatta gathered this combination of these are poorly equipped peasant troops inspired by the Pope in the franciscans along with the regular Hungarian Army there was very little Noble Cavalry because the Nobles hungry at this point very hesitant to participate in another Crusade after the previous Crusade losses each time this happened more and more Nobles in their children were lost more more Nobles lost welfin had to sometimes pay Ransom some things of the common people would they were inspired by the pope or they were kind of doing what they were told that the Nobles they were kind of bored sitting sitting this one out
00:14:33all these Hungarian and foreign forces added up to about 30,000 soldiers still about half the size of the Ottoman Army but you know they could make a difference
00:14:44no fortunately for the hungarians they are very strong maybe on the Danube and so they were able to go down and come meet the ottoman ships
00:14:54no importa no to this point about the geography of Belgrade its sits on a kind of v-shaped spit of land where the Sabah and the Danube rivers meet us much of the seed was actually kept by ottoman ships because well maybe like more than two-thirds of the borders the city of Belgrade are along the rivers
00:15:15to the hungarians attack diminish the first destroy the bulk of the Ottoman Navy which meant that right away supplies and reinforcements could enter the city
00:15:25still it was facing heavy bombardment from the Ottomans who were about to kind of give up in spite of the fact that well their seed was no longer a real seed because it was easy to access the city
00:15:37but the Ottomans no down nude they really miss their chance to mount a full frontal assault before those reinforcements arrive because Belgrade had pretty powerful walls and even though that really Farm use half the size of the Ottoman Army in once you factor in the powerful Fortress suddenly things don't look so good for the Ottomans
00:15:56so with new soldiers arriving everyday to reinforce Belgrade but still several breaches have been created in the walls and so the Ottomans wasted no time and try to mount a full attack before too many soldiers got in the janissary corps quickly got inside of the city but they were separated when hungarians through wood and covered in tar inside the walls on fire so he's got in but then they're trapped inside the city as the ottoman the salt on the walls Was Defeated and much of the janissaries trapped inside Belgrade were Massacre
00:16:32the next day in violation of hung out these orders much of the poorly trained peasant Crusaders snuck outside of the city 2 loot ottoman positions
00:16:41we set up a battle line and began to harass the Ottomans
00:16:45a response sabahi Cavalry attempted to disperse them but failed
00:16:50soon more and more Defenders relieving the safety of the walls to join the Force Base in the Ottomans out in the open and 400 could really get control the situation a full battle has broken out
00:17:03still Hungarian Commander Mana should take advantage of the situation and regain control quickly
00:17:10what attachment was let out across the Saba during this time to get behind the Ottomans while hun Yadi let his own contingent to take on the ottoman artillery
00:17:20the Ottomans were taken completely aback by the situation they really weren't expecting the Hungarian and Serbian forces to leave the safety of the city and attack them like this and so the regular soldiers begin to flee
00:17:34the remaining janissaries attempted to gain control of the situation there was no uses the main Hungarian Force begin to attack from the walls
00:17:44the fighting became Fierce and the sultan himself finished defeat a Hungarian night in single combat but not before taking an arrow to the knee and being quickly taken away to save his life
00:17:55there was this moment an enormous opportunity for an Yanni to take his army and invade the Ottoman Empire or even just to Kill The Salted I mean my God we've seen what a capable Commander Mehmet was and it's hard to imagine how ottoman in European history would have been different had Mehmet died at this moment
00:18:15but it was not to be the army of crusading peasants was already fed up with leadership I mean remember they defied on yachty's orders and left the city walls and that was what created this Victory and so they were on the brink of Revolt they didn't want to take any of these orders and so John on yachty felt he had no choice but to disband the Army and return to peace
00:18:39ultimately the losses for the Ottomans were quite massive me they lost 13,000 men many of them were Elite janissaries but we knew they could kind of absorb those losses
00:18:51but what was even worse for them with the loss of around 200 ships and 300 cannons those were far more expensive and harder to replace
00:19:00still hungarians didn't come out so easily just after the battle plague broke out and John hell yeah he died three weeks later after his great but sort of unintentional victory
00:19:12Punjabi was 50 years old and hit effectively ruled hungry for about 10 years it won more battles against the Ottomans than any man of his era
00:19:21tale of two sons and a legacy which could perhaps one day come back to leave an impact on hungry
00:19:28but without a doubt this is a problem because as we just saw a right ladislaus was not exactly a powerful or commanding king of Hungary it's been so important during the last 10 years he was the one commanding Hungarian policy a raising Army after Army beating the Ottomans when no one else could is it with his absence no doubt there was a lingering question of what now
00:20:01the eldest son ladislaus the eldest son of Han yachty who has the same name as the king of Hungary just so we can be confusing as bold as his father and not ready to give up power
00:20:15it's okay he did improve old-fashioned and he made his move and he sent a Kidnapped King letter Styles and murdered his Rivals but this ultimately backfired and the King leader of him and his brother imprisoned lot of sauce is bad in for treason and his brother while was just kept in prison and again you don't we saw on your default his sons try to quickly take control of the Kingdom to make sure that they don't lose the immense power that their father had gathered but within a short period of time it's all for not
00:20:52let me time meme it wasn't done with his conquests know a major invasion of Hungary was clearly off the table his reach had exceeded his grasp and he paid dearly for the mistake without having to face the Fearsome walls of Dow great again there was still plenty of territory closer to home right for Conquest namely Bosnia Serbia Albania filakia and Moldavia
00:21:20but anyways following the ottoman defeat at Belgrade Serbia but died within a year he was actually 79 years old so it's not exactly shocking
00:21:33with his death his wife and three sons fought over control of Serbia until his son leather poisoned his own mother and exiled his brother to take full control
00:21:45but shortly after in 1457 laws are agreed to become an ottoman vassal once again in order to prevent yet another invasion
00:21:54obviously he couldn't rely on the kind of support he'd gotten from Hungry previously because well hungry was dealing with his own succession crisis he wasn't around
00:22:05give those herbs knew that they were more or less on their own
00:22:09I want all that was going on
00:22:12well no surprise the Ottomans had not forgotten their old friend skanderbeg in an army of 15,000 men have been sent to deal with him in early 1456
00:22:23obviously the sounds a bit like the same old Ottoman strategy and what was new here was at the commander of this Force noisy are you not gonna let me have been one of the most trusted Commander's before he deserted to the Ottomans
00:22:39I saw this man new scanner back inside and out even more than the previous ottoman commander who would serve with skanderbeg in Anatolia
00:22:49there for awhile this Autumn and forth with no Barger than the previous ones it was perhaps more deadly
00:22:57knowing the two armies met Joey C's 15,000 Ottomans and the 12,000 albanians under skanderbeg but when they Clash the battle began with single combat between one man of each Army
00:23:11Albanian men who stabbed and decapitated the ottoman Soldier but following this loss Mohican self challenge skanderbeg to single combat
00:23:22just as the two men were approaching one another though we see pulled back and instead ready to the Army for full battle
00:23:30the two forces clashed with Albanian Cavalry initially gaining the upper hand and soon breaking the ottoman forces the battle quickly devolved into brutal hand-to-hand combat with both commanders themselves getting involved
00:23:46ultimately the albanians carried the day with noisy escaping with only run 1/3 of his original 15000 soldiers
00:23:55by the time he limped back to adrianople with his five thousand soldiers it's no surprise that he was not exactly welcomed with open arms
00:24:05scared for his life he soon actually sled back to skanderbeg and beg for forgiveness even more surprisingly he received it it's kind of bag restored his position all of his land and so noisy when back to fighting for Albania against the Ottomans just like that
00:24:27around this time descendants Kennebec to own family brought new problems when his neck you sold the Fortress to the Ottomans for 30,000 silver do cats
00:24:37when this was discovered the nephew was imprisoned but the Fortress and still been sold
00:24:44then whence kind of back had a son another of his neck is defected to the Ottomans his dreams of inheriting his uncle uncle position forwarded
00:24:54clearly at this point one of scanner bags greatest weaknesses with the Betrayal of those closest to him
00:25:01that same year 1456 with Hungarian support Vlad the Impaler successfully killed his rival vladislav in hand-to-hand combat
00:25:11blood and took control of lochia and said about a bloody Purge of all those would oppose his family in the past decade giving rise to his famous moniker the Impaler
00:25:23he also sought Hungarian promises support against ottoman expansion well continuing is animal annual payments to the sultan
00:25:33backwood on yachty died and his son ladislaus briefly controlled hungry before being deposed the young man doubted love loyalty and therefore supported buddy Faust brother Dan the third for the throne again Block in politics just never fails to be complicated
00:25:50no honestly at this point doesn't do any family really just need to pick a side when it comes to the ongoing fight for control block you but they refused and so some local notables actually supported Lads illegitimate brother creating a new three-way fight for a power and who is going to be the boy with up of the lochia
00:26:11as hungry descends into minor minor civil war with the execution of hung out his son glad take the opportunity to expand his influence and when a powerful Ally by helping a man named Steven take the moldavian throne
00:26:25Stevens uncle had murdered his own father to take control and so Steven was out for Revenge that's between a long story short I took the two invaded Moldavia together and successfully installed Steven on the throne in 1457 so now lucky glad he has an a-line control of the neighboring state let them said about raiding Hungarian Transylvania to take care to take advantage of the chaos and hungry and earn a few bucks
00:26:56but this is all this was occurring something dramatic an unexpected was happening and hungry. I saw a fifth of hungry died unexpectedly it just 17 years old I couldn't find any references to how he died but there was no mention of Foul Play so suddenly hungry was thrown right back into a crisis is there was no clear air the diet of hungry diet is a nother word for like an assembly during this. Kind of gathered to elect a new king and well ironically enough there was only one real contender
00:27:31in spite of his brother's execution for treason treason II younger son of John Hannity Matthias when he was the only guy who is the power and influence in quite frankly if the diet refused to give Mateus the crown it would invite Civil War because well Matias was home yachty's son and he wasn't about to just take that lie down
00:27:57the Nobles of hungry but they had enough of all this chaos and they decided to elect the 14 year old boy to be the new king of Hungary
00:28:06frankly it was quite a rise for the John for John hung out his family remember Matthias his grandfather was simply a court night from a relatively respectable family to Generations later he was king of Hungary
00:28:21I know that's why I'm going to leave things today Serbia's under the shaky leadership of Lazard Brockovich hungry has a brand new king son of a powerful and dynamic ruler but still only 14 years old and yet to prove himself Vlad the Impaler is ruling the lucky with an iron fist that is just installed the young and vibrant Steven as ruler of Moldavia and in Albania set back at the siege of Barrett skanderbeg continues his winning streak beating Army at army sent to destroy him by the Ottomans
00:28:54all in all that the Conqueror is facing some unexpected setbacks following his conquest of Constantinople and yet throughout the region new and inexperience rulers - skanderbeg and flat left some states potentially vulnerable to ottoman expansion
00:29:12frankly the big question is where will Nimitz strike next will be Serbia filakia Albania Maria in Greece or perhaps somewhere in Anatolia or maybe several at once you really can't put much past the young and voracious Mehmet
00:29:29next time we'll see what his next move is
00:29:33but before you go I found some really nice quotes from a foreign traveler in Bulgaria during the Decades of the Ottoman Conquest in I didn't really know where to bring this up into the podcast so I thought I'd just stick them down here these calls are about what happened to bulgari's ruling by our class and they're from a wonderful website only unfortunate but cold Bulgarian history. Org if you want to use Google translator speech language you can check it out there's some great articles there
00:30:02took the first quote is for my Flemish Noble May Mosey geeslin Dosepak who expressed his opinions are sort of impressions of Bulgaria as follows quote here I come to mind how light in illusory is what is generally considered a nobleman because when I wanted to learn about some girls who were more of a more noble appearance and what kind they were I heard that they were leading from the high school yards of this Bulgarian people or even from a royal family but now they were married for shepherd's the nobility in this land is so dim and quote
00:30:42who was Winnie in German Reinhold luebbenau three decades later had a similar impressionable Garren lands he noted that code in this country Bulgaria has no Nobles at all as in all Turkish lands someone who wants to be famous with nobility or pedigree cannot express himself with exquisite many of the old rulers families Mary for shepherd's daughters until the aristocracy is completely eradicated such Nobles who are too proud and despise others around us well Madewell think that now gentler maidens of royal family Mary Mary peasants and quote
00:31:21so just a quick point there about what happened to the nobility of hung of Bulgaria's basically they married anyone and so they gradually vanished
00:31:30so that's going to be all for today this episode was written and produced by me or calls either theme music is always written and performed by Teddy Raven so who's back good luck

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