The west gathers its strength for a strike at the Ottomans on Bulgarian lands with the last Bulgarian royal in tow. But what will they find on the shores of the Black Sea?
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00:00:09welcome to the Bulgarian History Podcast episode 61 the crusade of Varna
00:00:42so no pay Transporters this time but I want to take this moment to encourage you all to check out that YouTube channel it's called Kings and Generals no new episodes of the last few months covering the battle cost of all the Battle of nicopolis to Crusader are they just released one on one of the early 8th centuries Arab of attacks on Constantinople lots of really really interesting kind of YouTube videos covering these historical battles really nice guy and yeah they create good content to make her a lot of the same events and battles a week over here but you know if it's me topless the crusade of Arnold Battle of Kosovo if you'd like to kind of see some nice maps and some nice kind of battle formations of things and to get a better visual idea of what does battles and events look like
00:01:42come out
00:01:44the last time we ended with the death of ciggies moon hungry as well as his son-in-law and successor as a result the king of Poland vladislav became king of Hungary as well
00:01:57miss Consolidated power in Eastern Europe
00:02:01the lochia under Vlad dracul finally gave in and became an ottoman vassal will Serbia under George Brown had more or less cease to exist as the Ottomans conquered but hungry to labare Lord
00:02:17the Ottomans also captured this alone it come from the venetians with the result being that the Byzantine Empire is now really even reduced further it's the cut city of Constantinople a bit of the area around and some islands a little bit of Grease but very very little left. And finally get the West 2, need to do a new Empire but to no avail the people of Constantinople themselves to becoming Catholic
00:02:56so that's the situation in 1440 the ottomans are resurgent as if their Civil War had never happened yet King versus love fresh hope that the combined opponent in hungry might get pushed back the ottoman
00:03:12what year begins with the Ottomans failing to take Belgrade after a seat will they may Bannock Serbia the fortifications of Belgrade still are there to stop their advance
00:03:24right this moment pressure was taken off hungry when the cotterman principality attacked ottoman territory in Anatolia forcing to rush there to fight them
00:03:36hungarians took the Sultan's absence as an opportunity to counter attack so they rated deep into the Balkans in 1441
00:03:45that your parents want to major battle against the local ottoman Commander but it wasn't enough to reverse the situation in the region
00:03:53this is partly evidenced by the fact that the very next year another ottoman Commander invaded Transylvania with 17,000 soldiers
00:04:03Bulgarian voices lost their first battle against this new invading Force but within months they really destroyed the ottoman Army ottoman commander of All European forces to take an army 70002 Transylvania to teach the Hungarian you real lesson
00:04:24his army was also destroyed by a far smaller force in the Carpathian Mountains
00:04:31still these victories were only against local commanders or even the whole commander of the Balkans of Europe but not against the full army with the janissary
00:04:44they hardly affected the overall military capacity of the Ottoman Empire tens of thousands of losses the Ottomans could absorb them
00:04:52did you function as major propaganda victories for hungry and Victorious commander of any of these battles a man named John on yachty or Yono on yachty in the Hungarian
00:05:06the following these victories in Transylvania and filakia the hungarians installed the second on the Block in front because I've been subbing to earn a to demonstrate his loyalty the Ottomans and was in prison Fair presumably for collaborating with the hungarians or at least on suspicion of doing so
00:05:27show them your love that are cool returned and retook his throne after pledging loyalty to the Ottomans
00:05:33that loyalty was 500 boys year for the janissaries and giving his two sons including the later certain Vlad the Impaler Dracula as hostages
00:05:44now in any case much bigger events were foot elsewhere the boat was attempting to unite the Holy Roman Empire Poland Hungary and the remaining Serbian forces and even the last Bulgarian Royal Cruisin for a crusade against the Ottomans the pope believe that they were weak and that this was the perfect moment to attack
00:06:06negotiations of an ongoing for 2 years go by the beginning of 1443 European forces were pretty much ready for Buddha on Palm Sunday and on 40000 mostly Hungarian soldiers began the March South
00:06:22the first major ottoman stronghold they face was me the city was initially captured without much trouble as it had only a small Garrison and the ottoman to get to a mass in Army to face this crusading are
00:06:36so when by 1/3 ottoman Army supports the Crusaders and one by one they were defeated then the remnants of the three forces gathered together to face the Crusaders yet again only the fourth time
00:06:51one member of the Ottoman forces was the Albanian Lord skanderbeg whose father I bought in an uprising against the Ottomans while he was serving them in Anatolia
00:07:02he saw his chance at this moment and he actually fled the Ottomans with 300 loyal Albanian soldiers back to their Homeland to lead a rebellion and this is going to be very important so remember this is the moment when skanderbeg gets away
00:07:19still so tomorrow in his main Army had yet to meet the Crusaders these initial armies they tall, no loss but what I was coming
00:07:29he was pacing Sophia and by the time the remaining ottoman forces reach them did bird everything between me and Sophia in an attempt to slow down the Crusaders and obviously hardware supplies the advice of some time to burn Sofia to the ground though I can't find any indication as to whether or not he did this but by the time it was December and no doubt supplies must been difficult for the Crusaders I mean obviously I'm very familiar with this region in December 8th very cold you can have a lot of snow it's not a very nice place but typically when all the fields have been burned
00:08:06broad retreated to the zlata ask knowing that his outnumbered Army to challenge the Crusaders better there as they made their way towards the ottoman capital of India Renee
00:08:18not by the time they met the Crusaders it was mid December and bitterly cold
00:08:24the Crusaders really could have turned away they could have gone to find a place to wait out the winter
00:08:30but at this moment they decide to press on
00:08:33and the result was total defeat
00:08:37we don't have detailed descriptions the Crusaders were repulsed and turn back to return to Hungry on Christmas Eve 1443 so after all those defeats the Ottomans turns the Crusaders back
00:08:52but of course the way back through those Berry field that have been laid waste by the Ottomans and again it was the middle of winter so no doubt the Crusaders lost many soldiers due to lack of provisions and that bitter that are cold
00:09:07pepper on the way back the Crusaders were ambushed by the Ottomans near me and actually bench defeat the endocrine course which is quite remarkable I mean imagine how how bad morale must have been at this moment they lost it's freezing it up any food there were treating and yet they defeat the same person for us and they even admitted to capture the soul X son-in-law in the process
00:09:31so what the state was it actually loud in Crusaders to portray the whole Endeavor as a victory when they got back home where I was otherwise it would have been okay if we want a couple times we lost now treat and we defeated the ambushing attacking ottoman so really it was all good and was a great success
00:09:51but the question was still whether they would manage to return home I'm home was still quite a ways away and the Ottomans to attack so they can be ready right there resume the campaign in the spring over glasses love and honey I rejected the proposal and return to Buddha
00:10:13there they were treated like conquering Heroes inspired Woody mix record of the campaign
00:10:19the fact that word went out all over your bed a great Victory have been one was important it been hard to convince European leaders to send armies and commanders to fight the Ottomans precious Crusades against them that ended so disastrously in the past so even if it was mostly propaganda this is really important for the Crusaders and for the European forces fighting the Ottomans
00:10:48now that spring instead of returning to the field to campaign against the Ottomans again and a series from the crusading states went to the ottoman Capital the deer me to negotiate a peace fortunately that's why they've been fighting the Ottomans previous two years those kind of mountains in Southeastern Anatolia ones have been fighting recently well they sacked two cities including Ankara Murad was faced with the same problem the byzantines it always faced that constant danger of two front Wars remember gun guards and scored all those recent victories, dad was either in Anatolia or on his way back
00:11:28so things will go quiet and only to have the situation play up in the Balkans back again or vice versa so I had to rush back and forth between them this reason he was really eager to make peace with the Crusaders he also justifiably felt that his horses that perform really poorly until he wasn't eager to continue fighting and see how much worse things could get a clear we had a bit of reforming to do in the army or at least you know train everyone a bit better if they're going to perform better and so he wanted this Crusade over with
00:12:03in June 1444 a treaty was signed
00:12:07firstly once again brought Serbia back to life Serbia seems to be the source of the Middle Ages in the Balkans it just keeps coming back this newly restored Serbia would be under the control of what contains 24 cities including. Capital he work so hard to build bearable
00:12:26you would also have his son's return to him although they both been blinded by the Ottomans so sorry
00:12:33but the cat was that this new Serbia would still be an ottoman vassal state so well win some you lose some
00:12:43lastly the agreement contained a 10-year truce between Hungary and the Ottomans and would allow blood that are cool to avoid the obligation to go tomorrow at skort
00:12:55still the tribute from the black hands would have to keep going because they were still considered an ottoman vessel
00:13:03over even as Murad was rushing through the completion this treaty with the Christian emissaries he really had to get over to Anatolia to fix the situation there while often hungry King blood type was actually preparing to continue the Crusade
00:13:20Omar that the second cuz in the meantime we have to jump over to that Albanian Lord scanner back why I told you would be so important that you just escaped from ottoman service during the early battles and well you weren't albenia any form something called The League of Legend and anti ottoman Alliance of Albanian feudal Lords live by him personally
00:13:43catching when did this while peace talks were on going with the Crusaders and ottoman Army march to Albania because well they wanted none of us they had does nip this in the bud eliminate this potential Uprising right away
00:13:58so obviously Sultan Murad is very busy elsewhere and so he sends his Premiere Commander Ali Pasha who has somewhere between 25 and 40,000 troops their mission is to crush the albanians
00:14:14skanderbeg get about 15,000 soldiers soap to take the low estimate of the Ottomans they're still pretty heavily outnumbered
00:14:23the difference it's those albanians they arrested they are motivated they know the terrain
00:14:30as the famous 18th century historian Edward Gibbon put it Coast albanians a marshall race where unanimous to live and die with their hereditary Prince and quote so obviously they had quite an attachment to scanner bag and he led them to the plane of toriel and openlane with some rough terrain and Forest on both side and there he planned an ambush for the ottoman laying a portion soldiers hidden in one of those Forest on the flag
00:15:03so as the armies met the albanians are set up to provoke an ottoman cavalry charge a raid in a reverse Crescent a classic move of ancient and medieval armies pushes their Center back so it looks very inviting it looks like they're sent her a steam it looks like it's a week
00:15:23this made the Trap as alluring as possible
00:15:27and the Ottomans took today they sent an initial cavalry charge which was repulsed no doubt No Doubt with great difficulty but skanderbeg album back wishing to maintain order
00:15:44so it's got to be set and suspicious of a theme Retreat on the Ottomans Park member this is the classic tactic of stuff people to pretend they were treating and then attack once their Pursuit
00:15:58eventually the entire ottoman Army engage in the Trap was sprung Albanian Horseman Rush from the forest to hit the Ottomans in the rear Begin to Fall Apart as the albanians moved in and Slaughter. It's a huge casualties and barely escaped with his life
00:16:16Rick's was the beginning of skanderbeg war against the Ottomans which was the last four decades
00:16:26will consistently outnumbered skanderbeg Albanian forces would win battle after Battle of the next few years
00:16:34but in the meantime where did that great Victory further encourage the Crusaders to abandon those peace talks that we're kind of ongoing they signed a treaty but the treaty wasn't final the Crusaders is still really debating whether they should restart the whole thing but this word of victory said do it the Ottomans can beat beat
00:16:56at that moment there were really intense Pro and anti war factions they're all putting the pressures on the king in the particular Bronco bitch being the one set to gain the most from this new ottoman treaty was attempting to organize in favor of peace
00:17:12ultimately by the time the ottoman ambassadors ride in the Hungarian city of Sega was trying to buy time in 10 days the final version of what would become the piece of second was negotiated it was essentially what have been agreed to an additional hundred thousand gold Florence paid by the Ottomans to text not too bad
00:17:38however even as the ink was drying and Bronco which was taking possession of his land plans to restart the Crusades were progressing
00:17:49Yiannis when yachty having been one of the main people who signed the treaty was coaxed into breaking his out by being offered the kingship of Bulgaria remember even before the destruction of the Second Empire Kings of hungry had your sort of decided to take the title king of Bulgaria even though that never really met very much on their part but still it's a you know you can be technically a thing of a place that is not a country right now
00:18:17fortunately for the king also said it's also important that you're not going to Dishonored by breaking growth because the ottoman was terrible and they're liars and we can break us with them no big deal
00:18:29it was now getting it too late summer and it was agreed that the Crusade would resume in the fall the war party want out
00:18:37best preparations are underway still had no ideas going on did not know that you was going to be betrayed and that the treaty was well just a piece of paper
00:18:49you just finished his war with the government in San Antonio and really he was under the impression that he's an Anatolian peace in the Balkans man today well the Ottoman Empire was entering a period of peace and so with this in mind we rob took a remarkable stat he abdicated in favor of his 12 year old son mehmed II the first time an ottoman Sultan had done something like this
00:19:13but clearly what I was dreaming of a peaceful retirement thinking that 10 year peace the hungarians would get his son ample time to grow up without being faced with the tribulations of War
00:19:26all but Brad was very very wrong
00:19:31what's the temperature 20th only about a month after murad's application that Crusader Army began its Mark South
00:19:39this time I'm heading to Serbia the Army followed the Danube
00:19:45this was because Bronco beach again he did not agree with breaking the piece of second until you refuse to participate in Risk Serbia's newly gained independence which was so dear to him
00:19:57So the plan was to make the Black Sea and then head south to again attack the ottoman capital of a deer neck
00:20:04the venetians were blocking the Dardanelles to prevent the main ottoman Army from being transported from a back to Europe however the Gentiles were working with the Ottomans and they managed to transport the Army in spite of the venetians best efforts to prevent it
00:20:21the Crusaders reached important cities like Nick Bowl vegan and turnable along the way though didn't take any of these powerful fortresses because well time was of the essence
00:20:32still we can imagine that fruzion the son of Yvonne Shipman
00:20:38who's at the Army all the way with a contingent of Bulgarian Warriors
00:20:43Imagine how you must have felt to see the former capital again
00:20:48really sorry. There's nothing in the sources about that but we can simply imagine the emotions
00:20:54but there's nothing to do about it now the Army had the march on and they reached Barna in November with the intention of linking up with the Venetian Fleet and some people reinforcements
00:21:05but there they learned the Venetian blockaded failed when they encountered 40 to 50000 ottoman soldiers and army twice their size
00:21:16the Crusader Army was made of hungarians checks poulsbohemian papal Knights Teutonic Knights bosnians croatians lithuanians worth Indians and yes Bulgarian
00:21:29musician about a third of the army with lockets with just join the Army at nicopolis but for all their international support the forces only perhaps 20,000 straw
00:21:41can have the disparity of forces was a good enough reason to retreat right away however the ottomans at swing around and approach Varna from the north and so the Crusaders are stuck between the Black Sea Lake Varner in the Ottomans
00:21:56the question was whether to focus on defense or to attack declared quote to escape is impossible to surrender is Unthinkable let us fight with bravery and honor our arms and quote
00:22:15you can see a map of all this on the website as usual and get an idea of the situation other Crusader set themselves up to three and a half kilometer long in the sea covering each of their flanks
00:22:31the battle begin with the light Cavalry of the Ottomans attacking the the ottoman Left Flank rather attacking the Christian right flank
00:22:39you talk with your pulse with missile fire in the Christians pursued the Ottomans for being slammed on their flag by more ottoman cavalry
00:22:48another example of the Ottomans retreating drawing the Christian then and then attacking them
00:22:54this led to treat of the Crusader right who which attempted to get through the marshes in the small river between Lake barn and the sea in order to retreat to a fortress for some protection
00:23:06meanwhile the ottoman right flank was also attacking but it was repulsed
00:23:11silk the Autumn is attacks again and hung out he left the center to go assist them with him gone the Polish King glasses love decided that he had the chance to end the battle this moment you saw the Audubon Center was vulnerable and Sophie got a 500 polish night and they rushed they charge straight into the ottoman center with the intent to kill or capture some time this whole time
00:23:36nothing over Ram janissary infantry they reached the Sultan's Tent before glasses spouses horse fell and making was killed and beheaded by an ottoman mercenary
00:23:48honey I tried desperately to retrieve the body of the king the man who ruled most of central eastern Europe and it was great hope of Christendom against the Ottomans
00:23:59but it was no use
00:24:01the rest of the army retreated and was slaughtered or captured as they try to make their way through the marshes to the rear
00:24:09what you did get away largely died of frostbite or were hunted down by the Ottomans
00:24:15another Crusader Army was gone even the Venetian ships in the Black Sea weren't able to rescue nearly anyone
00:24:23only hunyadi seems to have escaped the Ottomans though he was been imprisoned by The Blockheads for some reason
00:24:31tell her eventually love lyrical did let him go
00:24:35no all the Ottomans did take heavy casualties it said that it actually took this whole time three days to realize he actually won the battle so that seems a bit strange to me it seems pretty clear once again for the ottoman eliminated the possibility of any major opposition to their expansion in Europe for the foreseeable future and it made it even more unlikely that the rest of Europe was under the banner of the Crusades to resist the Ottomans important the propaganda was here nights in their money in their soldiers off of way would only mean they would die in strange lands then no one's going to do it
00:25:20and so that's how it worked out
00:25:23no a quick note about those who led the ottomans at the Battle of Varna I mentioned this sometime though some sources right that it was Murat While others say he was still in retirement until 1446 when the janissary Glidden Uprising and demanded his return I honestly look at the sources can be quite sure but either way it's some point and I'm going to talk about it more detail Simrad does come back and come out of retirement sort of but there is an interesting quote attributed to the quote if you are, leave your arm if I in the sometime I hereby order you to come lay by armies and quote
00:26:08really you can't argue with the kids logic there but either way either if it was now or in 2 years brought was back on the throne his young son returning to the role of The Heir Apparent
00:26:21meanwhile the death of the king of Hungary and Poland led to immediate cast asbury's Nobles jockey for power in Hungary fell into a kind of Civil War the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick third occupied many castles and territories on Hungarian Western areas and other neighbors and local Lord won't they just stole what they could
00:26:45after some time. It was called and it was decided that the five-year-old lusts us the posthumous son of Albert V the previous time during king would be released from imprisonment by Frederick the Holy Roman Emperor and would become king of Hungary
00:27:01in addition all the castles that have been illegally constructed during all this chaos would have to be torn down
00:27:08however Frederick refuse to release lost his house so in 1446 hunyady who attended released by The lock-ins was elected Regent to run the come the country in the meantime. June a truce was signed the Holy Roman Empire which accepted that they weren't going to release the young Hungarian King and later on because of a midget to say that they would release him on his 18th birthday so we can go become king so in the meantime
00:27:43play the last thing I want to briefly discussed for wrapping up
00:27:47you'll notice that someone was entirely absent from this Crusade of Varna the byzantines
00:27:55and this absence demonstrates just how much the relevance of declined and that they were neither willing or really able to assist against the ottoman they stayed quiet and Constantinople this entire time
00:28:09of course what are the other important results of the battle of that along with ottoman victories in Anatolia and the Balkans the Ottoman and I felt free to focus their attention on that single last bit of Territory between all this land Bears Constantinople
00:28:26but again just remember this the byzantines they've really given up on rising up alongside Crusaders a challenge the ottoman they don't think it's worth it they don't think they can resist they're just focusing on keeping contents Noble on protecting their Jewel of a city
00:28:44so as the ottoman start to turn around and focus their well we'll see what happens next time
00:28:52this episode was written and produced by me or causing the theme music was written and performed by Teddy Raven and as always was back or an English good luck

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