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Today we continue our discussion on the work of Deleuze. 

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00:00:00hello everyone I'm Stephen West this is philosophize this was an educational resource can help keep it going by supporting the show on patreon patreon as a crowdfunding platform for episodic content like to show you pledge a certain amount per episode only charge when episodes are released and you can feel great knowing your help and get velocity out there two people that want to hear about it
00:00:21I see if you gotten even a smidgen of value out of this show forever long you listened to it thank you for your time and consideration that said today's episode of part 5 of our series on Shield to lose I hope you love the show today
00:00:33so we ended last episode with a passage from nature and I kind of want to re-read it for anybody that may not be listening to Parts 4 and 5 back-to-back need your asses to consider how we might view Our Lives differently if this was the case quote what if some day or night a demon Where to steal after you and your loneliness loneliness and say to you this life as you now live it and have lived it you will have to live once more and innumerable times more and there will be nothing doing it but every pain and every joy and every thought inside and everything unalterably smaller great in your life will have to return to you all in the same succession and sequence even the spider and this Moonlight between the trees and even this moment than I myself the Eternal hourglass of existence is turned upside down again and again and you with a speck of dust what do not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke dust or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him you are a God and never have I heard anything more divine
00:01:33and quote this passage was the first time you ever talked about the eternal return or the Eternal recurrence this is in his book The Gay science it came out in 1882 and it was just one year later in 1883 that he expands on the concepts and more when you release is one of the most revolutionary books in the history of the world Thus Spoke zarathustra but this time when talking about the eternal return he does so through the voice of a group of animals that are yelling at and taunting the main character of the book zarathustra they say quote behold we know what you teach that all things work her eternally and we ourselves too and that we have already existed in Eternal number of times and all things with us I come again with the sun with this Earth with this eagle with the serpent not to a new life for a better life or a similar life I come back eternally to this same self same life and quote so already just a year later we can see each other developing this concept into something that isn't merely a practical way of looking
00:02:33your life but in the second passage there starts to be a level of metaphysical baggage that's being smuggled in you know that all things work her eternally not just me the significance of this change is the losses interpretation of Nicha he believes that Nietzsche's ultimately making a pretty profound statement here about the long tradition in philosophy of being versus becoming what he means is hunza philosophers have divided up existence in terms of being and becoming an traditionally the category of being as always referred to things within our perception of reality that are constant supplies for say it's things that are unchanging about the universe some states things that are enduring generally speaking being has always been the things about reality that act as a solid foundation things that aren't going to change anything on the philosopher we've seen this expressed in a number of different ways on the show God is being nature is being substance is being excetera now this concept of being is always
00:03:33contrasted with the concept of philosophers have called becoming which as you might be able to guess are all the things about existence that are constantly changing or influx or you could say in reference to this picture of the world painting the parts of the world traditional philosophy has always seen as in motion the things always been that there's something more real more foundational about being then becoming becoming is just in motion it's always changing its contingent surface-level appearances when you want to get to the bottom of things as a philosopher try to understand being understand the foundation the everything that is becoming relies upon
00:04:12what to lose is going to question is can you find inspiration in several passages of Nietzsche's work on Eternal recurrence Nietzsche says quote if the world had a goal it must have been reached if there were four it some unintended final State this also must have been reached if it were capable of pausing and becoming fixed of being in other words if in the whole course of its becoming a possessed even for a moment this capability of being than all becoming would long since I've come to an end in quote what deleuze takes from this reading of nature is it in the same way he thinks identity is a derivative of difference. The other way around like we talked about last time feat appearance of being or what we mistaken as constants of the universe are only possible to categorize as a result of us seeing what is truly fundamental to lose be constant process of becoming Cita de Luz there is nothing foundational in the classic way philosophers of talked about it the closest thing to get ever come to it would be the process of the world in motion that process
00:05:12I'll be coming from Rapid odontology that unfolding of eminence former episode on politics that desire production and machines constantly seeking connections all of these things this world in motion becoming is the foundation things like being identity are in static system of thought these are just a tense by people to grow roots into the ground and reduce the rootless complexity of the rhizome to the rooted Simplicity of a hierarchical tree the fact is toodeloos identity is just not this simple of a concept and thinking about identity this simply only leads to problems when we try to impose these old and lightning are ideas on building the world we live in for Zeppelin Professor Todd Mays analysis of the Lucy gives an example of this by talking about the movement in the 50s and 60s the urban renewal of cities in the United States this is a perfect example about composing this naive picture of identity under entire cities of people
00:06:10the idea was that during the decades following World War II there seem to be an uptick in the amount of crime poverty unemployment and generally antisocial behavior that was going on in big cities around the country thinking was that the reason for this was because cities and city life which is too chaotic and unpredictable to ever produce a functioning situation for people they're either too many people or too many different walks of life in one concentrated place or too much of a variance in income levels regardless though he's solution people thought at the time would be to get everything organized in the city reduce some of this chaos that existed and so began a multi-decade effort to cordon off different areas of the city and designate them as the area where certain activities were going to take place there was the shopping district where people go to buy the business district where people to go to work during the day the living District where they make these new efficient high-rise apartment buildings that would be much more affordable for lower incomes than when living situations are more spread
00:07:10we identified all the different elements of City Life Corden them off into their own little sections and expected everything to run a lot more smoothly what really happened was the opposite things fell apart what happened was now nobody can get anywhere because the flow of traffic is all going to one section of town at one time a day the whole city's trying to go to work at the same time the whole city's trying to go to the Entertainment District at the same time the high-rise low-income apartment buildings just ended up crawling lower-income people into one small area even more which had the opposite of the intended effect it concentrated and worse in the ghetto more than that when it came to the reduction of crime that was expected it turned out that by funneling the vast majority of people into different sections of town at specific times a day. Just created a hotbed for Crime for example when the entire section of town that people live in is empty because everyone's in the work section of town how much easier is it to break into a home with confidence this dividing of the
00:08:10I don't have the same worsening effect on relations between people of different walks of life people felt more isolated more separated would be far less likely for somebody from two different walks of life to run into each other and have a conversation
00:08:22Professor Todd May sites the work of Jane Jacobs in her book the death and life of Great American cities the problem with City Planning of the type that went on during the fifties and sixties in the urban renewal phase is that City's just don't work in the same way that suburbs work but more in the language of delusion water Reed City Life is a rhizome cities themselves are machines and when you try to impose Ridgid identities and static rooted structure on to them you're left with a lot of unintended consequences like they were in the 60s member machines don't have a rigid identity that they're beholden to their identity within a given moment is defined by the connections and relationships to difference around them within that moment well isn't this a much more accurate description of how a City Works see from the outside looking in if you were to analyze a city and then try to identify all the different parts that make it up that City might seem to be pretty chaotic
00:09:19city planners make come along and think they know how a city works and try to impose order on what seems to them to be chaos but the reality to delouse is that it's not chaos the city is an active thing in motion it's a machine seeking connections the connection said it ends up making a riser the fact is there is an order two cities and city like that unfolds the problem for city planners are you in front of a sign Ridgid identities the way City functions is it there's no template for a city there's no cookie-cutter way that order and merges with in a city the order doesn't come from the outside from Sun City planner or some philosopher the order emerges or unfold naturally from the diverse connections made within the city it's imminent think of the similarities ontology hear substance doesn't come from something Transcendent from the outside substances imminently unfolding from within
00:10:12think of the similarities do identity versus difference or being versus becoming Notions of identity or order unfold out of difference or the world in motion to lose would say when things within a city or not cordoned off from each other unable to make new connections when workplaces in residential areas and restaurants and theaters and low income High income when everything's all mixed together it turns out he's just function way better there's less isolation machines make connections that are more diverse and does have a less compartmentalize view of the world there's never areas of town that are completely empty were crying and flourished there's always eyes on the street people feel more safe people feel a sense of community as a member of the city as opposed to just a member of their neighborhood
00:10:56deleuze and guattari the mistake we're making is we cannot think of the needs or identity of the city as something that can be pre-planned and executed the reality is there's no such thing as the identity of a city because the identity of a city is not a static thing it's identities always going to be determined by the connections that make it up in a given moment which no city planner could ever possibly plan for without the help of Miss Cleo when you try to impose rigid identities onto a rhizome you will always run into problems
00:11:29another example Padme gives when talking about this clear departure from traditional ways we talked about identity picture a guy that several times a week goes into a music store and in between looking for whatever she wants to buy the music store being a single man he comes to realize that he's extremely attracted to the woman working behind the counter now he also notices that every time he's in the music shop when she's working she's always playing jazz music that features the trumpet so this guy decides what he's going to do is he's going to start playing the trumpet so that she might like him or he might have something to talk to her about this painfully for an awkward regardless of the reason the guy picks up a trumpet now technically if we want to do a sign and identity to this man after this moment as he's practicing the trumpet he would be a trumpet player but where exactly did that piece of his identity come from was there some sort of latent trumpet player identity hidden inside of him since birth
00:12:27if two weeks from now he's walking down the street both his arms get ripped off by a passing trolley and he quits the trumpet is there a trumpet player identity lying dormant inside of him they can just never be expressed for the rest of his life to lose would say no this is not how identityworks the fact that man decided to be a trumpet player in a given succession of moments was entirely contingent upon his open-ended identity as a machine seeking connections and then the connections he sought to make as that machine also consider the fact that the only thing that's going to determine whether in five years this guy is still a trumpet player or not is also entirely contingent on the connections he makes will he watched a documentary on Wynton Marsalis and inspires them to be the greatest trumpet player ever
00:13:11will there be a welcoming Jazz community in his neighborhood and invite him to come play with him every week when he goes into the music store and casually brings up how he was playing his trumpet the other day does the woman behind the counter seem to be more interested in the point is there wasn't some static pre-planned identity the determine that this guy was going to be a trumpet player only the connections made when interacting with a world that is constantly becoming unfolding an in motion around him and the same Dynamic applies when it comes to all other aspects of identity as a machine whether that's a person in a music store a city being organized and planned or a movement of thought that ends up becoming the voice of a generation
00:13:49cheapest is the mistake that so many people make when it comes to trying to understand their own personal identity so often people run into the Trap of just conforming to the identities handed down to them by their parents or doing their best impression of some character they like on a TV show or let's say they were to do something like pick up the trumpet to just completely copy the way trumpet players have always played the trumpet that came before them just parroting the people that came before you the the same notes the same scales the same riffs and transitions what happens when you live your life in the same safe pre-planned ways so many people play music when they pick up an instrument what happens is your life becomes a blocked rhizome the possibility of a random route shooting off and making a new exciting connection with another Network becomes impossible the possibility playing new music with your life becomes impossible you turn yourself into a tree rooted in one place restricted to the same risks and transitions for the
00:14:49dim your light unable to see new possibilities
00:14:53what so many people do to lose they want and identity given to them by some third-party outside of them that tells them how to live a city planner for their own identity someone to answer the question for them what does it mean to be me
00:15:07this is why it's so common for people to want answers to these old questions from philosophy that we began the series with people desperately want an answer to the question how should one live how should one act as though being a human being could ever be marginalized the questions that simple as though there is some sort of human nature out there some constant of the universe some Essence were only the right philosopher comes along and identifies it for us then I'll have all the answers then we can rest easy knowing that some Transcendent body prescribed a way that I should be the same way if the entire history of philosophy is tried to explain oncology in relation to Transcendence the same way psychoanalysis has tried to explain away Desire by relating it to something transcended the same way people watch the news read a few books hyper focus on one little tree size section of the rhizome and then spend the rest of their life looking at things from their narrow one-dimensional hierarchical worldview making declarations about the way that things are
00:16:07what you be completely obvious by this point is that when it comes to the question of how should a person live the kind of question that dominates the ethics of people like Plato and Aristotle deleuze would never even think to try to answer a question like that this is why knowing what we know now the question that's far more relevant to the losses the question how might a person live what possibilities exist what connections can potentially be made member of the first episode of this series we talked about his answer to the question what is philosophy the conclusion being that when you're engaging in philosophy you're not looking for the truth you're not looking for some set of objectives or identities about the way that things are but instead you engage in philosophy to hopefully arrive at the interesting the remarkable the useful
00:16:57there are parallels when it comes to approaching light we shouldn't engage in living life with the expectation that there's some way we should be living that we're going to arrive at Sunday because again the world is fundamentally a world in motion to delouse constantly emerging or becoming or influx but this picture of the world to lose his painting goes far beyond just metaphysics this entire worldview is in many ways a call to action a gauntlet being thrown down challenging anyone who hears it to rip off the shackles of a rigid identity has been given to you by somebody else you would engage in a process of becoming to allow your identity to emerge eminently from inside of you rather than accepting it as a gift from someone else but it goes beyond just you his work is a call to embracing the entire world in terms of difference rather than identity because if the world is fundamentally imminent and in motion and rhizomatic
00:17:52then to embrace that Eminence and motion and the enormous fractal complexity and interconnectedness of the rhizome is to affirm existence to belews rather than the gate existence which would be to hide behind identities and hierarchical systems of thought that just oversimplify things to affirm existence is to embrace difference to seek out different people different cultures different ideas different answers to the question how might a person live which could include different jobs different relationships different Lifestyles to spend your time engaging in different activities maybe this year it's the trumpet maybe next year it's archery the point with all of these examples is that you are a single perspective when it comes to making sense of all this when I say all this I mean the universe you are one perspective nothing more nothing less and as tempting as it would be too clean to one of those hierarchical tree like systems of ideas like you're a koala baby to delouse
00:18:52only way to take a step back and see the interconnectedness and complexity of the world around you is to embrace difference and like the world stay constantly in motion yourself have new experiences do things there is always more to be done to lose you never seen it all and the Loose Ends of your telling yourself that you have seen it all you should examine what it is you're really saying about yourself there that is the call-to-action let's embrace the world that spontaneously unfolding and in motion by ourselves remaining in motion and part of living our lives that way is going to be being okay with not knowing how things are going to play out she had some Transcendence answer to how you should be living your life you basically know exactly how your life was going to play out if you had some static identity of exactly who you are dormant trumpet player that lives inside of you then it wouldn't be a surprise at all when you decide to start playing the trumpet one day but this isn't reality to lose when you're affirming existence UK
00:19:52know how your life is going to play out until you're actually doing it and he can't know exactly what kind of person you're going to be until you're actually living as a machine and see the connections around you to truly affirm existence is to seek difference will also understanding that there is no cookie cutter template of identity to follow as a human being and ultimately to accept the fact that when it comes down to it the universe doesn't owe you anything there are no guarantees to affirm life into truly Embrace Eminence and a world in motion is to accept that the universe is going to play out the way it's going to play out and to get attached to any single outcome good or bad is simply to deny the way that reality is unfolding
00:20:34Duluth is not saying that you shouldn't try because of that or you should resign yourself to Total acceptance of whatever comes your way try your hardest have a plan stay in motion but understand and find peace with the fact that you can't ever really know ahead of time where that motion is going to take you for this reason to loses a really big fan of looking at life almost as a series of experiments because an experiment is always in some way seeking something new but can't ever know the results of the experiment until you actually run the experiment this is a worldview that can start the sound a lot like nature and it's it's no coincidence that both nature and deleuze talk about this process of living by affirming life rather than a dating life
00:21:16maybe if there's one thing both nature and Toulouse are the most similar on it's the fact that they both absolutely despise Conformity and the idea that the person who stays in motion Embraces different crates their own values and identity makes connections experiments the idea that this is the person that owes the world an explanation for their actions rather than the person conforming to the safety of the systems of thought around them know this person to them walk and spend their entire lives never seen enough of the rising to even know how small of a bind their conforming to up regardless in closing when it comes to living life maybe the best advice is from deleuze and guattari themselves they say quote this is how it should be done wide yourself on a stratum experiment with the opportunities that offer find an advantageous place on it find potential movements of deterritorialization possible lines of flight experience them produce flow conjunctions here in their trial continuance of intensity set
00:22:16my segment have a small plot of new land at all times in quote thank you for listening I'll talk to you next time

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