Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss fungi. These organisms are not plants or animals but a kingdom of their own. Millions of species of fungi live on the Earth and they play a crucial role in ecosystems, enabling plants to obtain nutrients and causing material to decay. Without fungi, life as we know it simply would not exist. They are also a significant part of our daily life, making possible the production of bread, wine and certain antibiotics. Although fungi brought about the colonisation of the planet by plants about 450 million years ago, some species can kill humans and devastate trees.
Lynne Boddy
Professor of Fungal Ecology at Cardiff University
Sarah Gurr
Professor of Food Security in the Biosciences Department at the University of Exeter
David Johnson
N8 Chair in Microbial Ecology at the University of Manchester
Producer: Victoria Brignell.
United States


00:00:00this is the BBC time does a reading this to go on our website and you can get music by the program's if you're full of us on Twitter at the BBC and I hope you enjoyed the program's I just home to millions of species of fungi and the role it plays vital without funky life on Earth is Reno's simply wouldn't exist they also play an important part in our everyday lives the making of bread and wine wouldn't be possible if available and being part of the production of sudden since penicillin the other phone number to impose nasty diseases in humans and Destroy trees sometime they are even toxic to humans and can kill if consumed despite the significance much of the way in which remains a mystery Sarah Professor food Security in the bio Sciences department at the University of Exeter then body Professor phone when he called you at Cardiff University
00:01:00Debbie Johnson NHL in microbial ecology at the University of Manchester then bought it what is a fungus and what did they look like the kingdom of their own supposed to thinking that plants because the Fruitport is the things we think of his toadstools or brackets on trees I spell superficially they look a bit like flowers or fruits of plans but then then then not the flowers and fruits of plans we know that's not the only part of a plant that's that leaves and The Roots & Shoots in the same way the fungus has much more to it than that toast to let me see when they wanted us through the woods the toast was just the tip of the iceberg underground we have the main body of the fungus the mice celium mycelium is a network of science elements of the body of the fungus this is what sets me apart from all other organisms it's the
00:02:00components of the fungus that grows and it feeds as a network of fine tubes with a large surface area with a huge enzyme capacity
00:02:10I'm told from the notes by Meek invite the three of you there about three to five million species of fungi and we identify a hundred fifty thousand of them something like that so there's a long way to guys what do they have in common as a common feature and also found in animals in invertebrates in their exoskeletons are actually from the most closely related to animals and how to plant how do they differ them their religion do they differ from the crossing of lines are they they have some foraging Behavior
00:03:10Asos around for food they don't get up and wander around by many animals do they search for food when they find it ain't they respond and I can if you look at some of the cartoons that they make a robin look like a termite trails and see when two and let's go investigating the food sources that are like plants in the sense of the but they don't wander around the similarities to two different organisms groups but they look huge difference is one of the most important things about them is that they can't make their own food so plants make their own food fungi make their own since I have to get to in the same ways I Almost Do from other organisms so that is a crucial feature about funky when did fungus cargo ship to take went well
00:04:10Swedish biologist he was the first person to talk to group organisms on teen group sings into animals and plants but he threw the funghi into into the plum consecrates it wouldn't let me think the props they look a little bit like plums from the can I come back to you later so we can talk about how could you like it in the ass
00:04:45would throw the funky played in the history of life on Earth one of them the main events that they were responsible for was the meaning of the earth so the movements of plants from The Aquatic environments into the terrestrial environment which happened about 450 million years ago and I thought process is only possible because of the role of fungi so when plants are going in the Aquatic environment they they have a that they have nutrients out of very badly available to them in solution I'm so taking up nutrients is rather easy online and that's not the case and some primitive Roots out these other plants Hardware really going up to the job of acquiring nutrients and so one of the critical processes was the evolution of the the mic Horizon symbiosis so the interaction between fungi that live on land with Pond Roots so they develop
00:05:45too much associations that enable plants to colonize the terrestrial environment and take of nutrients Abaya these root ball and fungi to enable the plants to diversify and full movie you know that the huge diversity of plants that we see today
00:06:03there's something about 150 million years ago we know that's some remarkable fossil evidence to some of the famous riney church and a rabbit eating other states back to the to the other devonian about 400 million years ago and it contains some incredible I preserve specimens of these Audi primitive plants maybe slightly but it's like plans but you can actually see evidence inside the root systems of structures are a remarkably similar to the structures that you say in modern-day France you can say hyphy colonizing Latin roots and developing the distinctive coils inside the roots I hope you to be preserved nice about provide some of the best evidence to today this Greening of the Earth
00:07:03and will you tell us about the range of environments of Tongan Ovid
00:07:09it's more question of where they don't have it that you can literally everywhere so in this room that are probably fungus pose floating around what are you up to so one of the reasons I so successful is out the spores dispersed very easily because it's so tiny and they produced in huge abundance so that's the name of them to colonize virtually all protective a simplistic question but that's floating around here in this room broadcast are they looking to do anything they will find a suitable substrate to two colored eyes and to germinate many fungi associated with human so nice skin for example maybe a scary thought but we are covered in the microbes including fungi I'm sorry that I sent you looking for the seats for the environment to to germinate and then to colonize colonize
00:08:09old terrestrial biomes so the Boreal forest the Arctic the dry valleys of Antarctica tropical forests every terrestrial biome contains thousands of fun joy and also think the Aquatic environment so I'm ticklish freshwater environments but also the marine environment so they're really incredibly successful let me call you back. This incredible God bless as a result of that sometimes. So I mean Lynn mentioned that some of these fun job to juice I'm very distinctive mushrooms which most people are familiar with so that's that's one group of fun job but you see is very distinctive it right transient are short-lived Spore bearing structures nacho fungi produce those some apple juice but you would take fruit buddies so they the so-called
00:09:09my seat switch for juice cup shaped fruit bodies and some don't but use free parties at Old so they have a very different morphologies we can classify them in very different ways of friendly early classification systems were based on that morphology
00:09:28but they also very different modes of nutrition so some fun giant a parasitic some fun Jaya a separate trophic so they breaking down dead organic material to get that nutrients some fungi a full and mutually beneficial associations I mentioned for the greeting of the earth is an example of the evolution of a mutually beneficial association between the plant and the fungus so late I have very different modes of nutrition tell us more about Robert Hooke 1665 hook who is responsible for inventing the compound microscope in Oxford looked on his microscope and the first thing he described with Coke sounds and he picked up a red leather book and he looked at what was going on at 10 he described the fungus Mew cool he then wanted out into his garden in Oxford and he picks a rose leaves know he's really is he so apparently mailed use to his contribution was the ability to see
00:10:28fun joy for the first time in 1665 with his compound microscope
00:10:34how many can we talk about the species of fungi so how many are the names of the beginning and the biosphere then they will be between 2.8 and 5 million other species that we don't yet know about so huge biodiversity real colors on the case of trying to trying to discover the classic categorizes classified between fungi and the Animals across the world but my particular interest is in fungal disease of crops so thorough many scientists doing these sorts of things but not me
00:11:20so what are you finding out about the fungal disease of crops that wheelchair now in Dubai roof butt implants on in crops the number one agent of plant disease is actually the fun joy so fun joy are number one and bacteria and viruses and nematodes cause disease but they're not as important to in terms of chronic diseases at the moment despite the fact that we spray on Chrome sweet fungicides and we breed disease resistance into them will still losing between 10 and 23% of all crops per annum to Kroger grocery losing out to about 20% off to harvest so proud post-harvest storage diseases caused by fungi and so security is hugely challenge by the march across the world not telling you buy trade-in transport but also due to climate change
00:12:14people listening when they're about a mushroom can you tell us how that is a fungus the London Eye is London a mushroom is just one small part of the kingdom of fungi what it represents is David said is the fruiting body so the ability of this particular creature to put up something that looks a bit like an umbrella in from the bottom of the umbrella weather gills out to release thousands upon millions of spores to make sure that the next generation of mushrooms or jelly Moulds Ruston smuts occur so this is one part of the fungal Kingdom where it makes a freaking party and it disperses it's pours but that part of the kingdom of fungi is anyone very small part that's 11% of the franchise that we currently no
00:13:04I know about these fairy circles hang out long threads filaments that Lynn describe the mycelium under the cross
00:13:23I'm going to come back to your can we develop the idea why they're so crucial to plant space macaronis as we stay in his already explained for The Greening of via from that's where the fungus associated with the roots of plants so like a risers from the Greek letter name Michael means fungus Ronnie's amazing tuna tree fungus route so the fungus with the roots of plants probably getting over 90% of all the problems that we see in nature of these associations that the fungus spread out like that that fine sediments into soil they absorb water and mineral nutrients they give up those but not water and there's nutrients to the plant able to protect the plant roots from Papa John's in the soil does a swap for this campaign is going to given the fungus sugar soap silver exchanges and there's no role play it's a mutualistic relationship counseling
00:14:2380% second reason is that funky the garbage disposal agents of the natural world composes they break down the dead stuff the funky video to an arm pits in dead stuff I suppose that's not the point is a dead plant material there nutrients locked up inside and by breaking down dead material funky releases nutrients and available for plants to carry on grill until it's two of the main reasons why plants absolutely depend on anybody. Planet depends on funky because I depend on Plants related to wait at least an equaled endophyte so end of fight between is endo within front planter funky with in Florence and if you look around you every punch you see how is fungal end
00:15:23what's inside in the sand The Roots & Shoots that just a very very tiring at the time it is in that symptoms of things but they're in the plants important properties to the dance so funky of make chemicals which are inhibitory to other animals so some of these into fights and making nasty chemicals which did to graze graze is like in Seoul insect when the bigger animals that there's a situation with with horses sometimes that have got you know how they stop it runs if it if it was a drunken and it sent it to the whole C from eating eating the grass but it's a funky that produce in those chemicals
00:16:23the other funky plant's ability to color lights very saline soils for these n difference of very important to and then of course think that the fourth reason why funky appliances to the negative side of the service or do you need to do and that's when funny of pathogens killers of Thrones
00:16:44David David Johnson can we develop the idea of the different sort of yes I think that the most Nutrition a good way to start so I mean we talked about parasites or saprotrophs mutualisms so that's a nice way of creeping phone chili from the classical taxonomic approaches so for example of Sanford bookstaver breaking down organic matter that using energy locked up in the dead material to gain that an energy to gain that Calvin on that nutrients lindsell also mention to my garage fungi which are dependent on plants for the that sugars and in return provide plants with mineral nutrients and then that's their the parasites which doing harm to that particular hooks tokenism example of a group of parasites that colonize honest which produces mind-altering chemicals in the ants Brighton that forces be honest
00:17:44trollhunter the top of plant leaves hook themselves onto the leaf why they die and then the fungus can produce its little fruit bodies and and dispersed from the and that's a remarkable adaptation to at the end of the strategy to gain a source of nutrients which is the body of the island I'm going to gain a suitable site to dispose dispose
00:18:07I'm sorry we ask you about the beginning of the serious study of fungus say I haven't developed the first scientific paper in the world of plant disease biology happened in the gardens Chronicle which was in the world Horticultural Society magazine in 1865 in the description was about the potato Moraine which event stage people thought it was a disease that came from the castle that are off during 1865 the referent MJ book he wrote the next paper saying it was a fungus I mean I know it wasn't quite closely related to find chai but the Irish Potato Famine was probably the most significant moment in the 19th century in terms of the study of chemical biology associated with disease because people know about that. Great Blige and
00:19:07it's still a problem today on tomatoes and over jeans and potatoes put in the 1860s we had a very extraordinary time in history most of the land owners will absentee landlords in London they were Protestants in the people who work the land where Roman Catholics living in Northern Ireland and they were extremely poor a meeting between 2 1/2 and 6 1/2 kilos of potatoes I'm drinking water I feel well for you they had a cow so they had milk so what happens then was that they divided the potatoes that they harvested and they went mode as they stole them from you to replant it that potato soup what you would do is you take a tuba and you put it in a dog and Sack and then the feeling you would take that you for the potato and cut it into lots of pieces so what they did very effectively was to spread I'm going to culture so a genetically uniform stock of susceptible potatoes surround Island
00:20:04and then in Pops Pops in the ballast of a boat that traveled from the odd white came the potato disease phytophthora on this Rampage through a million. Irish folk in a million who immigrated to the new world what was specifically went to White House in Arlington this is one of several stories just simply that they were potato peelings in the boat which it arrived from South America and South America is the home of the potato
00:20:40how do you say how do fungi obtain their nutrients we eat food we ingest food and inside us in our digestive tracts enzymes break down food into smaller molecules which then diffuse into the blood system and spread around where the energy and other nutrients needed what is directly they secrete enzymes which break down food molecules outside of their bodies into smaller molecules and then these are absorbed into the fungus cause it's been very risky business. Because other organism could be around we steal the the breakdown product and they still Stuntin Like My Daddy say quite frequently with all that other fun being ugly bacteria that we don't have those enzymes comprised
00:21:40it's complicated molecules and other organisms of capitalized on disability of funky to break down big molecules so for example of termites make the Hyatt it might say actually Farm funky to turn lights in another animals didn't have the ability to break down complicated molecules in Plants such as Lincoln in the plants are made up so they take they coach if I'm gay to have a dog and it in the nest because I cultivate the funky they clean them up and take any contaminants away but they bring material to the fungus fungus that grows on it secretes enzymes breaks it down. Fungus cream can use that material to grow itself but also some of the termites come along with the fungus so it's a sort of a swap again I break it down into something to eat so there
00:22:40actually seems like this in South America and its two similar things and find loads of these mutualisms which have involved because of what fun we can do and how they feed and what about the decomposition of material how does that production of these enzymes by the high Phillies filaments drove through soil let's the critical process it's getting stuff to get carbon oil and oil to get drugs limiting nutrient site nitrogen and phosphorus said some of the enzymes that Lynn mentioned that other specific to those particular forms of nutrients some enzymes break down complex forms of carbon like cellulose one of the main constituents of plant material and other enzymes break down.
00:23:40make phosphorus compounds with your problems and soils are there enzymes break down organic nitrogen so you can do with a kind of cascade of enzyme reactions going on simultaneously and facilitating the breakdown of organic matter in order for the fungi to extract the particular nutrient salary required but it's not just about that the chemical wolf having the key feature of franchise that ability to physically colonize stuff I'm so this external digestion process only really works if you are actually physically attached to the substrate to you're interested in so a key feature of fungi is the ability to to grow through all kind of my turn to penetrate Solace tiny criticisms and pools that are found in bits of organic matter in order to facilitate the breakdown of full. Material
00:24:31should I go to the cells of fungi have any special characteristics can be anything from a microphone so 10 to the -6 ingredients of a meter right up to a long children like you see in a giant Chupa at UC don't John but you can see like licorice boot laces with dry rot scissors of the filament switch from the hyphy to the blue Nike structure is the membrane and we're very particular feature of this fungus is a particular funguses that it has a cell wall which confers rigidity to its it protects the fungus exclusive allows it to go through different surfaces and we'll see into plants or humans or whatever and very characteristic of fungi is that they grow by the tip so they provide polarized tip growth so they grow Fast Fords with the tchoup following them if you see what I mean and they're able to colonize all sorts of different
00:25:31are the organelles digestive structure within the cell is very much in common with other than the median I need indeed animals house so there are features that are common intrusive features that a different to give you the cell will wake up I mention that it was not what are the features of animals are things like the genetic information is held the way the fudge I might make energy the fact that fungal cells have almost to Highway of cytoplasmic contents that are funneled down a cytoskeleton since you have the motorway like in urine that takes organelles done it to feed the very tip for polarized gray so many of the organelles within a fungal cell all coming to animal cells
00:26:18what's the latest on life size as regular life cycle of a little too different life cycle take a mushroom to imagine this app is a mushroom that absolutely a producer of billions of sports equipment to the seeds of a flowering plant city middle schools in vertebrates or other animals and a spool might not answer in a good environment where condition to just run it as a food source it will germinate so screwed up from the Spore attic branches higgledy-piggledy to stay with screeching is enzymes breaking down out of the big molecules and
00:27:18she didn't grow bigger and bigger and bigger
00:27:22micro just for a short while or maybe for a long while before it finds a suitable mate maybe just a few minutes of spool might have landed right by it which mixture makes girls naked can make with that or it might be sometimes but not see the even years what do you say Mojo burrito and his sexuality describe how this message wow so funky mate. The hyphae of a fungi countertop come together and they simply fused together but that's only successful if they are compatible that goes we as humans have two Sexes male and female but funky have hundreds of sex is very awesome I think they can think of Mayte confuse with many different my CEO of the same species which come close so maybe spores trampled
00:28:22a few hundred yards away from a fungus of the same species and it makes its my Seaview on the chances on that they will be compatible so they will make they can even mate with my CDL which is developed from spools of a siblings by 24 by 25% of of the of a very close relatives that's accepting sometimes 50% so that they make like this and then a little bit different to start with I just have one nucleus in each of us Saddles but when they made it they have to end this day a separate nuclei for very long time until something triggers them to produce these people these mushrooms again so when the conditions are right in the mushrooms. Then those two nuclei join together and the genetic material in each of the movie recombined and then separated again into into into separate you could always go
00:29:22in two separate schools and so the cycle continues they won't pay they will Spread spread away so that's cool but
00:29:34funky can also spread reproduce asexually with without the need to mate so they can form to Spoils of the tips of an hyphy or sometimes the High Frankie Stein Cinemas is the main body of the fungus just separate and you too very small compartments we celebrate break up otherwise I was more complicated some of the status is a plant pathologist of loads and loads of different types of spoil if I can trust but that's a bit too much to think about how to check voltage on a budget I ask what a wonder why I am not be on the Run page and just take the whole thing over and over the planet but but not from a fine point if you from a good point of view they are absolutely everywhere is Dave is already said that intimately connected to Quan's house
00:30:34send them all the time they are breaking down of the Dead stuff that's about when they've completely broken down dead organic matter there wouldn't be anything left of them carry on breaking down so that was cool call Holt to to their activities so they've given find limited by who they can make with in terms of animals and how much dead stuff there is for them to use about these networks so in your money like some jack her and soil a type of juice these networks of hyphae but that's how I feel susceptible to attacked by animals that live in the soil so things like springtime little jumping collembola how many of those eat fungi and the very good job at it so it's not all Rosy for the fungi
00:31:34but yeah key feature of a fungi is the ability to produce these bass networks and microryza fungi in particular it's at a mycelium that develops through soil that's about as simple definition and but some of the fun guy the micro I will finish I can colonize multiple plants symbol taneously so they develop what's go to come on Mike Horizon Network so an individual fungus can symbol taneously colonize several individual plans sometimes of different species such as soon as you have a physical connection between different individual plans there is the potential for resources to move between those plants via this coming maika Riesel Network and in fact some species of plants that sounds absolutely critical I'm so many old kids for example he usually diverse family of plants about 25
00:32:34thousand species worldwide many of those plants have actually lost the ability to produce that are in carbon that they don't but you said any and they don't fight to synthesize and they're entirely dependent on the cob and moving from a neighbor in green plants via I come in my garage on that look to the old kids to facilitate that growth so that's like the extreme and of results movement through these Tom and Mike Ross on Netflix and to such an extent that you will consider evolved away from photosynthesizing on their own
00:33:07but I eat these networks can also I transfer other molecule so we now know that they can transfer a signaling molecules produced by plants when they're under attack from syphilis like he fits so it's been found out that when to plant is attacked by knife it can put you start signaling molecules that are designed to repel aphids but that these molecules can somehow be transferred through these underground fungal networks to neighboring plants that yet colonized by the the aphid and activate their own defense mechanism before they become under attack. The intensity of the devastating if I'm going to give this one or two or three different topics we can either talk about ecosystems we go to buy human health or disease of crops that start with trees
00:34:07so I think historically many of us would go on to the study of this subject plant disease biology by the fact that when we were growing up the landscape was changing and it was changing because of a fungus which cools. Joan disease he should have done that Consignment of looks from Ontario in 1974 a very aggressive strain of the fungus and Rampage through the elm trees of Great Britain leaving in its wake up until about 2 million dead elm trees change to landscape in the car as well so huge number of elm trees died in America they then had a terrible outbreak of a fungus cool Chestnut blight which wiped out 1.4 billion Chestnut trees historical examples for today people are very much aware of Ash dieback so this is a disease that probably came from Poland and was probably imported into a nursery in buckinghamshire in about 2002
00:35:07and today there have been up to today I think the register it was 1750 notations will where people have said they've seen the ash dieback fungus so this is beginning to change the landscape in the UK to so that's one example and you said you had two others unseen problem in the world today about two hundred thousand million people are suffering from skin infections and in fact the mortality from skin infections when they give invasive particular if you are incompetent of your immune system is down means that each year about a million people die from fungal infections and that means that fungal infections are hidden Peril posing more deaths in the area and in fact more deaths than HIV and tuberculosis added together
00:36:07does he use so if you look at the major calorie crops of the world we knows that wheat and Maze and potatoes sorry Wheaton phase and rice, 40% of global agriculture land at each of these individual crops suffer from different parents so the wheat suffers from rust disease the potatoes suffer from fight authorized I told to rice from Rice Place disease and Maze from a disease cool cool and smart and these individually wife out of Boston Mount of crops and she asked if you take just the five major pathogens of plants we know that they produce will that they compromise our crops so that we are unable to feed between 600 and 4000 million people 2000 calories a day each year so very significant losses due to fungal disease on crops
00:36:58then this movie. Question is there any way that fungi compete with each other it's not at all question at all it's a very good question don't give very very competitive competition is being looked closely in Rockwood so if you went to the to the woodlands and sort through a tree trunk is full and dying or abroad UC multiplying using that dark colored lines sometimes bright oranges and let them that they don't just straight lines they cancelled his D mark a territory like how we put fences around pools around all Homes and Gardens to show which is out of the area so funky do this to an aggressive way they completely surround volume of wood was I can occupy I'm with you to see pussys you defensive material so when they put this territory that you can
00:37:52use the nutrients in in that region Elijah because I remove the time against thy neighbors who would also like to come in and get food from them because they know this some of them when that when they meet that late we just deadlock Nye the money just to get any of the territory from from the other one of the ones are much more aggressive and can replace completely a fungus and they do this in different ways like they produce volatile compounds a bit like the gases in the trench warfare in trench warfare in the poisonous compounds that dissolve in diffuse through whenever they grow into it to kill their opponents they pretty much eat their opponents and sometimes they sissy condom so everything's great grazing directions going on all the time to use some of these battles toot toot toot for our human benefit
00:38:52so I live from the school trying to dinner which is parasitic and I was like what you see lots of chemicals which can kill Clown Posse chances of the things that Sarah's been talkin about their other ones which could kill insect pests so we can gradually begin to manipulate funky to to to to to kill some of it being the old missus we find this past the cheese bread wine and bed seems terrible that's what that's clearly one you say we like eating vagina to great things to enable us to eat very nice food so many of the important crop plants are things like in a wheat Valley maze rice they're all plants out of evolved full microryza fun giant night they wouldn't exist
00:39:52doubt. Symbiosis so I think increasingly were looking at I using fungal diversity to improve the way we grow crops I try and grow them in the most sustainable white so I don't relying on use of fertilizers and so on but not relying on these of pesticide so much we're trying to embrace the the power of fun Johnny to to help grow out to them all healthy and sustainable a Fortunate Youth on the Move in concert with climate change so this is a very yeah so this will have a profound impact Norteno on the crops that we grow for the way that we control control fungal diseases of gropes so they're marching at the moment so what
00:40:52sugar level effect on the crops that we grow can you become so we'll probably be changing all crops and as we change our crops is a superfood honeymoon. Between the planting of the crops on the arrival of new pathogens on these crops so we could enjoy moving on quotes demography also moving so we'll see a new diseases for the North and we'll see diseases as we begin to go for example grapevines more prolific in the Northern parts of Europe throw them in southern Europe will probably see the pathogens on the couch with the clothes
00:41:35what will leave the pathogens on the mosh thank you very much thank you very much. And Buddy and David Johnson next week will be discussing Rosalind Franklin who played a vital role in discovering the structure of DNA thank you for listening and the in our time podcast get some extra time now with a few minutes of Buddhist material for Melvin and his guests
00:41:56so what did we decide what you were going to say that you didn't say humans in in very important ways in addition to what day does mentioned earlier for example of medications penicillin first used in mind but funky also make other drugs which we use so after Greenwich that is used to treat asthma Vocaloids which uses vasoconstrictors to treat migraines in in Juice uterus contractions statins are we discovered from fungi in the first place to treat cholesterol and bad cholesterol important in the production of some steroids
00:42:56make a note that is made commercially finally funky and enzymes and Science and other things like a school because it is well alcohol and after the whole enzymes is protease is the softening meat tenderizing meat pack today for breaking down plant cell walls which produces more juice when you're when you're making fruit juice there is bitumen such as Vitamin B carotene is the stimulating yes I think we might have just emphasized too much the fact that fungi are all Foods in fact that it was off friends as well but boring an idea from the old guy in Aberdeen I think we should think about funjoya citizens of modern society because that ethnically diverse and huge and number they're important for recycling they're important school is and teaches which is something that we didn't really
00:43:56spell upon very much because in fact many of the things that we love from fungi what voice of fullness have told us about the cell cycle pivotal to cell biology do all sorts of other things in the environment that are useful for us that we talked a bit about but they also know Chinese School doesn't teach us but they are problems so they may call feet smell they make our houses were rotten they destroy our crops say but we must emphasize that they're very positive things such as the drugs and the enzymes that come from fungi without which life would be very much satisfied without the wine and the cheese in the wine and cheese day and date yeah I mean which is a penicillin uses what type of cheese so it's not just producing the empty microbial stuff it's me I producing that delicious product do you think that tonight besides I think it's just the most abundant
00:44:56least fun Giants soils teaspoon of soil typically contains something that 10 200m of hyphae that says it's a vast amount and I think you know we need to understand that you owe me thinking about how are ecosystems check it out forests that's just of vast underground World supporting an ecosystem which is so important for life on Earth in your in regulating a climate I am producing food Fuel and fiber yes really dependent on these phones I don't distances in the areas with that life is actually the longest organisms on the planet Jean off on give me off and think that it's a blue whale or something like that but the honey from give you all military is formed networks I'm true to Forest and some of the largest what we have large ones in the in the UK that probably the largest Ones been in the forest of North America where someone signs of a net worth
00:45:563 miles so they can be absolutely huge grind doing whatever it is that to a decomposing dead stuff and in some cases using living living trees and things that you know they can be quiet huge what benefits do they get for being so big
00:46:15well in the benefits they get from being networks rather than necessarily from this size that they mention that was so funny that form networks going too slow for network network you can send stuff from one place to another so the fungus is growing into a region which is Desert like an intern but maybe not enough moisture not enough nutrients through the network fungus can feed. Region from elsewhere also networks if you break a net with like if you close a road there other ways the traffic can grow can go and it's also the same in these fungal networks so he's huge networks have access to nutrients all over the place some transport networks are remarkably similar in structure to fungal networks and spend some very nice what comparing at the underground networks of the major cities with with fungal networks I'm sorry
00:47:15like an insurance policy you know they provide resilience if a host plant dies over that well if I'm just might have another source of energy over here for example and they can also help in this this competition so they can direc results is to these Battlegrounds you know where the where the energy is most needed so hugely important
00:47:36I don't know I'm Jenny Marie right now like this play something though this will never happen again because there's precipitated by Harvey Weinstein is a network now of women who speak to each other this election then what will I meant Jermaine that that strong that hard and I think there's a very big difference between being strong and hard I do know there's a real loss of place I think this essentially I put a human torch into machine so I'm a creative writer for the past now and see if artificial intelligence it's the pork roast butt made for everyone with two sports and politics you're sure to find something to enjoy and to make you think so download the woman now it doesn't cost you anything
00:48:35what's going on what are you waiting for

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