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ABOUT THIS EPISODE

This episode features a Q&A session with Dr. Rhonda Patrick. The questions were sourced from social media followers of both FoundMyFitness and also Zero Fasting Tracker, a convenient mobile app used widely in the fasting community for logging.

In this 45-minute podcast, Dr. Patrick answers some of the most popular questions related to fasting, including:

  • What effects coffee, supplements, and amino acids have on fasting
  • Whether one method of fasting is more beneficial than others
  • What effect the consumption of exogenous ketones have on fasting
  • Whether it is good to exercise while fasting
  • The ideal way to break a fast
  • How fasting affects muscle mass
  • How fasting plays a role in the growth-longevity tradeoff

... and more!

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TRANSCRIPT

00:00:00hello my friend Lee fasters a little bit about today's episode today's host is not me the reason is because this episode was originally put together for the benefit of the zero fasting tracker audience and dad today you'll find CEO of zero Mike mazur relating many of the questions submitted by some of you following either me or 0 on social media 0 was created by mutual friend of ours and prior guest of the found my fitness podcast Kevin Rose and offers a simple solution for users to track their fasting times where they were talking about time restricted eating or longer fast if you previously checked out of 0 they've since added Apple watch the poor and are looking to add a host of other great features to make sure to visit their website at zero fasting. Com or give him a follow on Twitter at zero fasting that's at the ero fasting in this 45-minute episode I answer some of the most popular questions related to fasting including what affects coffee supplements and amino acids have on fasting weather one method
00:00:59fasting is more beneficial than another what affects consumption of exoticness ketones may have on fasting whether it is good to exercise while fasting the ideal way to break a fast how fasting affects muscle mass how fasting plays a role in the growth longevity trade-off and so much more as you might expect much of my expertise in these areas is derived from the great conversations I've had with leading experts in the field such as doctors valter Longo Ruth Patterson Guido kroemer and satchin Panda these episodes are amazing resources and I strongly encourage anyone listening to check those out at foundmyfitness. Com episodes once again that's found my fitness. Com full episodes now off to the Q&A
00:01:46everyone I might mazur on the CEO of zero you can find us a zero fasting. Calm and I'm really excited to be here today with dr. Rhonda Patrick hey Rhonda so we're here today because we received a ton of questions from the zero community and ronda's Community found my fitness and it was about all things fasting so you risked you submitted almost 500 questions to us a great turnout and why we can't get through all 500 today we went through them and found seems of certain topics around fasting and related topics that you want to hear about so without further Ado will get into the questions but Rhonda before we do that let's talk a bit about your background for folks that might not know so you did your PhD work at University Tennessee and then you went on to do your research at St Jude which of course is doing great work trying to solve Childhood Cancer
00:02:43that's right yeah so I did all my graduate research at st. Jude Children's Research Hospital which is affiliated with University of Tennessee and down while I was there I study the interface between mitochondrial metabolism and cancer and cell death and so they're sort of became this expert in mitochondria and you know cancer metabolism and how cells Dyer don't die and that was sort of my focus during my graduate research there was thrown away when working with st. Jude Moore on the fundraising side since 2011 so it's a cool connection that we have for just such an amazing organization that it's bright and early in the morning here in San Diego we got a ton of questions about coffee and caffeine and how it may or may not impact the beneficial effects of fasting so let's get right into it
00:03:43okay great so I got my cheat sheet here on my iPad the first question from John Phillips is can you discuss in further detail why you recommend a water-only fast versus consuming coffee or amino acids while in a fasted state I'm looking to optimize my morning workouts with amino acids or caffeine be in want to know what benefits I am potentially missing out on versus the benefits I likely still receive so coffee amino acids the coffee question as you mentioned is something that is certainly it's ask quite frequently and to sort of address that question I think people mostly are asking in the context of a type of fasting called time-restricted eating time restricted eating it has a fasting component to it but it also has a circadian biology component to it
00:04:43people Michael what is circadian biology that really you know just sort of think about the fact that you know you're awake during certain times or wake in the morning you know early in the morning your body produces a stress hormone called your alert or active you know do all your activities and then as the day progresses and night time comes on you get sleepy you're making your body is making melatonin helps you with you know getting tired and go to sleep and things were shut down right now there's a natural path was turned out you know every cell in our body has one of those and including you know Pathways like metabolism so it's really important to make sure that you're consuming food when you know the metabolic pathways are active now you don't want to eat when they're not active and so a lot of this work has been done by dr. Sachin Panda at the Salk Institute and some of this called
00:05:43in a Big Show night what activates metabolism is you know basically when you taken your first food you knew activate those metabolic pathways and then there will be active for a certain amount of time and then as the day goes on they become less after for example if you look at men who eat the same meal early in the morning and then they eat the same meal later in the evenings and calories is a macronutrient content everything there more insulin sensitive in the morning and they're less insulin sensitive in the evening fatty acid metabolism is the same way so you made think well maybe I'll just eat some fat in the evening world turns out your fatty acids and be able to use those is with you know at as energy is also on a circadian clock and there is less active in the evening as well so with that said where does coffee come in threes in a coffee if you're just if you're if you're talking about coffee with cream and obviously cream is got calories and fat and and and that's you know something
00:06:43I would be considered in a food right cream coffee without something without any calories essentially then the question becomes does that count as you know starting your clocks and you know there's no real direct data that is addressed that question a couple of my thoughts are for one we do know that caffeine itself changes the Circadian clocks so if you know give someone a cup of coffee later later in the day it actually shifts the body's circadian clock that natural Rhythm by like 40 minutes so, itself is changing the circadian clock 6 exactly and
00:07:34Additionally you know caffeine is metabolized by the gut it's also metabolized by the liver so the question is does that you know activating the those metabolic pathways does that start your clock we don't really know if it's enough to or not what we do know is that you know there have been some studies for example a study done by dr. Ruth Patterson at UCSD she looked at time restricted eating in women that had previously had breast cancer women that that ate all of their food with in 11 hours in a fasted for 13 hours during that 13 hours they were allowed to consume caffeine so the black coffee or tea without cream and even though they consume the coffee during their fasting. They still had a 36% reduction in breast to they had positive benefits along the same lines there's been some pilot studies in people with type 2 diabetes for they've done time restricted eating for anywhere between a 628 hour window switch
00:08:34eating within a shorter window and your fasting for you know 16 or more hours a day there also allowed to consume caffeine or tea and they had positive effects on blood glucose regulation insulin sensitivity weight loss you know so clearly there is evidence in the scientific literature that if you consume black coffee within that fasting window there's there's still positive effects happening so I can paraphrase wall coffee or caffeine May slightly interrupted the Circadian window the metabolic benefits from black coffee or tea without additives are maintained studies that you know it's not negating metabolic benefits if you were not to consume that would you have a more robust effect we don't know because this is like one of the most common questions we get but I guess the early directional researches
00:09:34I'm in for a lot of people copy including myself coffee is crucial okay for right now and then we'll learn more about the detail level of what was happening maybe you're talking about just you know like I mentioned time restricted eating this is something that you're practicing on a daily basis or dry this is your eating your food within an 8-2 you know 12 hour time window and your fasting you know 4:16 or endured up to in a 12 to 16 hours right there's other types of fasting which we can talk about where you're doing yeah and of in that's not case researchers also shown if you consume black coffee or tea without any calories that they're still benefits right that's a great question as well and this this sort of touches on another aspect of the of the fasting literature and that is you know
00:10:34are there are many benefits that occur during a fast and heard many types of fasting and when you're when you're actually fasting some of the things that are occurring are you're you're you're lowering different Pat your deactivating Pathways that are typically like a grow pathway for example and it's called igf-1 to grow grow up halfway and tours another grow grow pathway both of those pathways are activated by amino acids and so if you were if you're limiting your amino acid intake along with your calorie intake and everything you're going to deactivate those Pathways and the deactivation of those Coppertone when will go down and Tobago down and those are essential for the activation of some of the benefits of fasting including a process called at apogee which is basically when your your cells start to recycle and interesting me they seem to recycle damaged components of themselves so like mitochondria
00:11:34which are we know they're the PowerHouse of energy in yourself damage mitochondria can be cleared away spring cleaning is the process that sell out things are just in there gets rid of them but I'm sure it has to be you know deactivated igf-1 has to be that could happen in a soda and then there's there's other things as well like which one we can talk about when we get into more of a prolonged type of fast those things also need to get this would be something that would sort of the date that natural reduction of mine which may interfere with someone papaji right. It okay great well that's certainly important for a lot of folks in our audience move on to the next question still caffeine-related will do it we had coffee questions but I think we can probably dovetail off your current your last answer this one's from Maroon Heckman I got the name right first of all things
00:12:34all that you do that's for you Rhonda you've changed my life wow that's that's awesome is there any more evidence yet surrounding if having coffee tea supplements etcetera while fasting disrupts the benefits of fasting I think you just answered most of that sounds like if you keep it to caffeine only you're not really interfering with igf-1 and mtor but maybe not trying to add anything on top of that what about electrolytes though because we had a lot of questions electrolytes I guess technically a supplement you're supplementing your natural biochemistry with no magnesium salts any any thoughts on that
00:13:184 time restricted eating you know I personally like to try to take everything within my eating window but I don't think it's really cute when you're talking about things like sodium potassium magnesium like the stars I know that's not really changing any of the the Circadian rhythm but we're talking about a prolonged fast when people are fasting for for example maybe Forty-Eight Hours or more and by the way like I can get into a more prolonged fast that's something that you may want to do under medical supervision PhD you're not a practicing clinician and so none of what we talked about so I should be construed as as medical advice but but research findings basically the electrolyte stuff I think that another there is evidence in literature you look at someone else during a prolonged fast you do start to deplete things like sodium and potassium immediately those things were to taper off as a fast goes on
00:14:18but I do think it you know there is some evidence that it's it's good to take an electrolyte supplement with a prolonged fast is a variety of like mineral and electrolytes supplement out there cool sounds okay great
00:14:38I think we've covered most of the coffee caffeine questions which is which is great to get started you talked a little bit about timer for two feeding next question I think we'll build on that which is from Sam Reyes the question is has there been any evidence suggesting one method of fasting is is more beneficial than than others to give me a chance to describe some of the different types of fasting which I kind of touched on already but you know you care you here in like popular culture you hear everyone's fasting and just like blanket term for all things. Valter Longo like don't like that term I just it's just so General and expertise does a lot of research on fasting he is mentioned how you know intermittent fasting can be considered in humans fasting up to about me no 24 hours
00:15:38prolonged fasting happens when you get in till like the 48-hour Mark so two days are or longer and then of course your time restricted eating which has a intermittent fasting component to it but it also has that circadian biology component to anyone within the time when your metabolism is optimal you're not eating you're obviously fasting and in so many people end up doing up to 16 hour fast and furious after eating with an 8-hour window there fasting for 16 hours and so I thought I'd already mentioned with the time restricted eating you know there's you get you get the benefits of the fasting parts of your fasting for 16 hours part of the benefits you know that are things like you do start to have repair pause processes that are activated and in order for it to repair damaged whether it's damage to your DNA or no damage to proteins are just
00:16:38damaged like I mentioned mitochondria are just pieces of dead cells floating around that stuff is is cleared away and repair during a fasting State get that with the intermittent fasting and time restricted eating which has a fasting opponent in addition to time restricted eating you have the the benefits and this has been shown by Dr satchin Panda Patterson others that you're eating within your your circadian biology in terms of when your metabolism is its most optimal so you don't want to get to know for example if you if you eat your first in a bite of food at 8 a.m. in the morning and then you're eating dinner at eight-thirty or nine you're basically you've already gone past 12 hours or tablet ISM at eight-thirty or nine isn't going to be very good and so and what may happen is you're not going to be as insulin sensitive so your blood glucose levels be higher your fasting blood glucose it can be higher
00:17:38besides Goods you can start to store fatty acids and adipose tissue rather than using energy Co started like gain more fat Mass which is has all sorts of problems in addition to that you may also your body because you have been going since it's it's been like over a 12-hour Mark when you eat that food in the evening you may be resetting the clock in your body thinks it's it's resetting the start time of metabolism to the whole time you're sleeping is when your metabolism is at its best when you wake up in the morning and it's completely misaligned so everything is misaligned from your metabolism is so that means that you're always going to have higher blood your fatty acids are going to be more likely to be stored in adipose tissue rather than use it so that misalignment so that's the benefit for time restricted eating or time should feed him as it's called with animals that are then as you mentioned dr. valter Longo he does a lot of research on was called prolonged fasting typically 48 hours or longer again I can get into that you may want to do that after medical school
00:18:37Vision now he is done a lot of research and animals showing that you know if you do a prolonged fast not only to have this at apogee start to act activate which we talked about I'm at the fast becomes more prolonged you actually start to get the clearing away of of cells damaged cells seems to be preferentially damaged cells that are cleared away in the process of that happening you actually activate stem cells and sort of replenish those damaged cells with new healthy young self let me show him this and animals were literally during the fasting. Organs will shrink and then during the refeeding. Which will talk about a little bit later they regrow so you're basically getting rid of the damaged cells mostly it seems and then you are we punishing them with helping you young cells and their regrowing that's all been done in animal studies he has some preliminary evidence in humans where it seems as though looking at various markers of like stem cell.
00:19:37Haitian for example that does seem to be happening but he's got some ongoing studies where they're going to look at that much more detail so you know that's the benefit of the prolonged fasting what you don't really get from a shorter fast cuz you need to really have a stronger stress you have to have your igf-1 levels really deep down it takes time by prolonging which you know in 2 minutes it has some calories for David that's like a five-day regiments are you really looking at kind of five days to get most of those benefits you discussed them for their fasting mimicking diet wish I was developed by dr. valter Longo and it's a very specific has a very specific macronutrient content to a specific amount of fat and protein and carbohydrates in a total calorie packed so and I think that would like the first days to a thousand calories in a second V de Jurgen getting a little bit a little over 700 calories a day
00:20:37I shown again shown in animal studies the same benefits with the organ shrinking in the clinical studies and human showing a variety of metabolic benefits of course improve glucose levels insulin sensitivity he shows igf-1 does go down and and and cholesterol like there's benefits with your cholesterol metabolism things like that so that's also another sort of part of fasting wear the same idea where you getting the etapa G in the stem cell production over a multiple-day fast accepted in his case bring low calories in the equation ostensibly to probably make it just easier for people to stick with and then a water-only fast stick with our least try out you know an animal's he has shown that you do get a lot of the same benefits as it is a water fast but you have to remember you know animals have a much faster metabolism humans
00:21:37if you don't want if you fast a mouse a rodent for 48 hours they lose 20% of your body weight while human loses maybe to the question that may come as well you know how much of the organ shrinking regrowing zebra with just a fasting mimicking for 5 days vs we know actually not a big lots of little nuances that aren't quite figured out yet certainly there are benefits of eating humans to wrap up the question it sounds like you know the question is a thousand times more beneficial than other sounds like it's there different instruments different tools for different outcomes and you know I may be combining some of these modalities may be doing you know time restricted feeding circadian more regularly and then periodically for to kind of get those cleansing benefits metabolic cleansing you do
00:22:37maybe a longer wanted if again if your doctor says it's okay you're cleared for it could that be a good sort of sequencing for people that comes from the intermittent fasting and certainly prolonged fasting is your body shifts from glucose metabolism metabolism carbohydrates to fatty acid metabolism and use printed yet there you get the reduction of Ketone bodies like beta hydroxybutyrate which is in and of itself and shown by people like dr. Eric Burdon to be anti aging in a sentence for their it's a signaling molecule that's been shown activate jeans genetic Pathways in the body that are known to delay age would diseases that are known to help increase repair processes it's been shown to reduce damage that's generated by your mitochondria which are you know basically what's generating most the energy inside yourself but that whole process of generating Energy is known as metabolism
00:23:37generates a lot of being a very harmful react by products in beta hydroxybutyrate lowers. So it kind of makes your mitochondria more efficient and turn the problem passing cool well let some sure you could spend the whole day talking about different passing times but we don't have that much time could we have other questions so let's move into actually you talk about ketones a bit and that last answer so let's just move on to a question about ketones from Austin will consumption of exoticness ketones disrupt a fasting State and that I know that there's been a lot of work in producing Ketone supplements so that's the question I think is what will that disrupt fast I've actually tried a beta hydroxybutyrate Esther so is the major circulating Ketone body that's generated when your body starts to go in
00:24:37play Genesis a lot of things do happen when your fasting and that's one of them so basically anywhere between it takes anywhere between Reno 12 to 36 hours for your liver to deplete glycogen depleted when is it happening is you immobilize fatty acids from your adipose tissue they go to the liver and they're actually used to to make Ketone bodies so your your oxidized in the fatty acids Now using to make Ketone bodies like beta hydroxybutyrate those Ketone bodies can then be used as an alternative energy source themselves which is incredible the analog I've heard is no you basically turning your body from a burning gas to diesel It's like a completely different fuel glucose to two ketones it's amazing that our bodies can even do that in some ways you got to Preferred fuel for four different organs in our body right
00:25:37efficient I'm going to throw it takes less energy to use a ketone body compared to glucose so so is energetically favorable in that sense which which is nice so doesn't sound like it doesn't really interrupted fastest for the part of the Natural Foods been about five clinical studies that I that I have read that have Ketone Esters not produced in the body exactly you're taking it externally I'm better taken basically a lot of the studies that have been done I've been looking in the context of Life Aquatic performance but they also look at other metabolic parameters which is interesting cuz that's kind of
00:26:37some of this data if you look carefully and within these five studies there been it seems to be that what what's been shown is that the exoticness consuming for sample of the exhaustion is beta hydroxybutyrate the supplemental beta hydroxybutyrate Ester it ends up getting creases of the blood levels in a bit hydroxybutyrate pretty pretty high but it also seems to decrease circulating free fatty acids which suggests you're not immobilizing fatty acids from your adipose tissue to be used to make your own which means you may not be getting the benefit of what you would call a fat loss right and that and that's a regulatory
00:27:18Loop that occurs in the body so it's either when you're when you're keeping your beta hydroxybutyrate levels gets high enough to know your body says okay we don't need to make any more of these with stops The immobilizing Cutting of the fatty acids from adipose tissue right so your body is stopping you from making too much right so that does seem to happen but then again exoticness ketones just don't last that long and if you're exercising or doing physical activity it's it's dose-dependent through the more the more active you are the quicker you use up those kitchen by taxing fasting which which gets my ketones way up and then I am doing a ketogenic diet which does the same thing and then I go for a Big Workout I'll come back and measure my my Ketone bodies in their way down and I guess it's because I've been using my workout
00:28:18hydroxybutyrate supplement to Last Resort salt if you want but still doesn't work that well a good point is that they've also been shown consuming the the exhaustion is beta hydroxybutyrate has been shown in humans to prevent the use of amino acids for muscle so stops and which also is you know make sense during a prolonged fast your body has mechanisms that play that help prevent you from you know when using muscle using proteins and amino acids from your muscle as energy one of those is that the end of the Ketone bodies prevent that from happening so that's a good thing but you said there's a trade-off potential energy again this is something that you know I don't know how much of a difference it makes but it's something to keep in mind getting fuel maybe you're a better candidate than some of those just looking for purely metabolic body based Ketone production and it's supposed to maybe cut the factor
00:29:18another question related to exercise and in growth so let's see
00:29:29so I practice this is from Angel or on how I got the name right I'm so practice is simple 12 hour eating window and a 24 hour fast once a week does intermittent fasting with the 24 hour fast for week my question is are there any downsides to training fasted as I usually do the exercises involved or heavy weight training and moderate cardio afterwards just want to know if I'm metabolically doing harm or having adverse effects of the intended goals thanks and love your work
00:29:59great question John there have been a meta-analysis of studies done so I just means his lots of studies that have been better if we looked at for example Trent doing physical activity either aerobic or anaerobic activity in a fasted State versus pre-exercise feeding so you eat before exercise and a meta-analysis it just kind of aggravates all those studies that have been done and that what the data says and So Meta analysis that have been done on that topic have shown that pre feeding before exercise improves it seems to improve long-duration aerobic exercise adorations longer than 60 minutes but it doesn't seem to really have much of an effect on performance if it's a robic exercise less than 60 Minutes on a similar know it's also proceeding let me know if you need before you exercise has also been shown to improve anaerobic exercise to like run till exhaustion but it doesn't really seem to have much of a significant
00:30:59icon high intensity interval training so so there is a little bit of a performance enhancement with eating before you workout in terms of long duration aerobics long long distance running right like that which actually makes sense even even running a less than 60 minutes I'm or a high intensity interval training class but what's really interesting is this med analysis showed that eating before you exercise or will you fat your training fasted you get really robust enhancements in glucose you know sensitivity but really robust enhancements in your mitochondrial adaptations to using fatty acids so you're basically your mitochondria become really primed for Maddie acid use which makes sense if you're in a fasted state they're going to have you know your
00:31:59completing your glucose and you have more of these fatty acids that are available for energy there's a lot of increased activity in genes that regulate fatty acid metabolism that's really expressed when you trained in a fasted State interesting ly when you feed before you train those that applications are blunted with which aspect of the fatty-acid priming your mitochondria to be like robust to use fatty acids as a source of energy you still get glucose and enhancements and stuff even when you're training when you're but it seems as though there was a Mite those the fatty acid adaptations of the mitochondria shift to our are blunted somewhat that you know if you're doing kind of a weight lifting with cardio shouldn't be a dramatic effect
00:32:59Chris questions you were asking someone was asking about the amino acids wanting an amino acid take up or they drain and they were wanting to like for high pitch like hypertrophy don't you know it's the best way to grow more muscle I will say that there have been studies looking as been a lot of research that has been done looking at you know is there as anabolic window that you have to take in amino acids and protein to like you know increase muscle growth and I think over the past few years I'm Studies have it's been pretty consensus that there's a lot longer time that you have a used to be fat like this is one of our window you have to down this protein shake mod we really going to miss it if that's the case I think that there's been a lot of hours after a workout however if you are doing if you're going into your workout fasted what's that you're even fasting for 16 hours ago
00:33:58you don't you aren't you aren't storing protein so in that case if you are doing a fasted strength training workout and you may want to consume protein within an hour after that if you're in a fasted State like a pretty fast but I think we have time for maybe one or two more cuz these are they require a lot of exclamation let's talk about longevity that's a lot of the reason that our audience in your audience knows is doing fasting so this is from Nina can you elaborate on the growth longevity trade-off so and you talk a little bit about that begin with igf-1 and Longevity so that you're with longevity trade off by fasting we down-regulate the Aging Pathways such as mtor growth hormone and igf-1 really need this done her homework and listen to you
00:34:58but in order to build muscle with resistance training we need to eat protein and have these Pathways activated in order to maintain build muscle is there a way we can get the best of both worlds the great question is the trade-off overstated how so thank you! To me a question but it should have released a lot of what you talked about already try to keep it as brief as possible I think you know I'd I do need a kind of just briefly explain the role of igf-1 and tour in Beijing and in the field of Asian research there been many many many studies that have shown that hire igf-1 particular igf-1 is associated with higher cancer incidence and this has been shown in a few looking humans humans that have a mutation in genes that regulate igf-1 that makes them have like a higher igf-1 level all the time they
00:35:58I have bad backs a higher cancer incidence of people that don't have those funds high-tech it's a growth a mechanism in his could promote tumors to grow because igf-1 is a macro signal as you mentioned it allows basically you know when you have accumulated damage in yourselves whether that damage comes from the mitochondria in a genomic damage there are there are signaling Pathways that are activated that say look the cells to chew damage to repair I need to kill it and didn't get rid of it because I may acquire a very dangerous mutation that could allow cancer to survive until your body has his beautiful way of doing that and it's called programmed cell death or apoptosis kill the South butt igf-1 if I just one is around and espresso high-level it's kind of around going no no no grow grow grow your cool you can stay I'm here when you do not forget about
00:36:58overrides those checkpoint that says died and so I can become very dangerous because then it can allow us one cell to them grow which the replicated makes more cells and then eventually get the formation of a tumor sometimes it takes several decades to happen and then of course you know it bypasses immune Point immune cells and things like that. Or else involved in killing themselves but that is one important way that I just want play the role in cancer humans that have more of it have a higher cancer incidence and the vice a versa s of humans that have mutations and make less of it have less cancer incidence it's been in many many animal studies both dr. valter Longo is shown as in others so many others that you know igf-1 can override in a few if you basically inject human tumor cells into a mouse and increase her igf-1 by a variety of modalities including high protein intake you can actually allow the cancer cells to grow faster
00:37:58waning is just been protein protein protein right and so I mean we have yet to see the the impacts you know long term of all that protein uptake, which is I think interesting I want to concern people but no protein does upregulate igf-1 correct the good part of igf-1 I mean so if we talked about this bad part where you very important longevity pathway in the body called Fox though which is really really associated with it regulates all sorts of jeans that are involved in repair and stem cell production at Tahoe OG although I Jeff One turns that off
00:38:58what has a really good it's also very important during development it's part of the growth in a pathway you need a row but it's also an important micro pathway in muscle tissue to repair muscle to grow muscle which is also important for longevity and there's multiple say that, even recently showing that muscle mass is really important for lowering all-cause mortality and printing Frailty things like that it also gets into the brain is an important growth factor for neurons it actually helps you grown or not new neurons that's called neurogenesis and it actually helps prevent your arms from Daiso allows existing neurons to to keep living so it's there it's an important signaling pathway in your brain and muscle I seen a handful of studies in my sin and Human Instead of shone exercise being Physically Active helps bring igf-1 into the brain into a crossover the blood-brain barrier and gets it into the brain where you want it and also gets into the muscle so
00:39:58supposed to have in your eyes you have one around in in your bloodstream where then goes to other tissues or and it stays around and and and is being a gross signal for for potentially damaged cells you actually wanted to get your brain a muscle cycling exercise and physical activity is a really good way to make sure that igf-1 that you're getting is going to the right places and in fact he's looking at protein intake all-cause mortality that have shown in that the higher protein intake does increased all-cause mortality and cancer mortality as well however in people that have none of that unhealthy lifestyle factors that are looked at for example Toronado beanies they are physically active they don't smoke or not drinking excessive alcohol there and they still have high protein intake have the same mortality and cancer mortality rate of someone that has a lower Protein that's a great recap + getting my I guess intuitively you know if you're going to give your body all this Fuel and growth
00:40:53use it as I use it for what it is designed to do and then if you're giving me all that fuel when you're not using it it can be left to do. Everything tented there to kind of get to her the second part of her question which was you know what's the golden rule for a long time it was thought you know that this is process of knowing which one is caloric restriction which does lower igf-1 you're doing it all the time he and he is even talked about the fact that you know the prolonged fasting to be a good sweet spot because during a during a prolonged fast you actually drop your igf-1
00:41:53and during that fasting. And that is what is critical for the apoptosis the clearing away the damaged cells attack it's important to activate the stem cells but once you once you get that point and you've been roofied you actually want igf-1 you want I just one because I just one then allows himself to grow and make more cells and replenish that population and so you actually there's a balance and it's like igf-1 is important in that plays an important you want to lowered to get that whole clearing away and it sucks it's this is the beautiful machine of our body that it goes through modalities of of cleansing and it's the reason that I think basking to become rightly very intermittent fasting clock restriction has become so popular because you know that's kind of how ancestrally we were we were we were brought up I mean we didn't have you know 7-Elevens and supermarkets and cupboards full of food all the
00:42:53I'm or constantly eating we had these natural breaks or we were hunting for food or gathering for food and we weren't eating all the time our bodies were repairing and then we got to refeed when we caught the the the deer and ate it and and then bought ourselves to that rebuilding phase replicating what for Millennia we've been as humans designed that's an awesome possum question a great gray answer do we have time for one more or how are you doing
00:43:28yeah let's do let's do one more try to make a quick what's the
00:43:37okay this is hopefully we'll be pretty quick let's do I post past feeding so a lot of questions about this what's the ideal way to break a bastard you talk a little bit about this you know is there a method to the madness with macro timing in this is from Brian abduction is there a message that matches with macro timing and as it pertains to glycogen levels or is it fine to eat anything in particular once you reach your ear or what'd you break your fasting window went to end your fasting window so what should we be consuming ideally after this fast I know you're you're basically at that at that point after your igf-1 is gone lower and you've done some of the top Aegean clearing away of the of the damaged parts of the cell and also
00:44:37apoptosis the damaged cell itself you want that igf-1 active and what activates igf-1 are amino acids so she really is Central molasses so so he's getting some protein actually to break a fast seems like it would be a good idea because you want that igf-1 higher actually regulates igf-1 bioavailability is carbohydrate so so carbohydrates allow I just want to be more bioavailable the most the time you're wanting to have less igf-1 but in the sense you want to have that we grossing also so eating eating a balanced diet but you know when when people are breaking a prolonged fast some people have sensitivity you know their guts a little more sensitive if you have a need for a few days in your body like so I'll talk to me about taking like me no making a shape with some blue
00:45:37little bit of you know protein powder that are like a little small piece of salmon and some fruit other people like to kind of ease into it with some soups or bone broths and then eventually kind of make it make it a small piece of protein or something or circadian like 16 8 fasting is a license to have binge which obviously is not a good idea I like when you're breaking a fast but she longer fast you're giving your body a chance to adjust back to a feed feeding state is important and eating you know non-processed Foods is is super important would you agree to help he needs his glasses and things like that it's important avoiding process who is it when we're fine sugar although things to make your kind soul eating refined sugars and and all that you're going to have a hard time your body is going to have a
00:46:37I'm switching over from metabolizing glucose to fatty acids it's going to make it's going to make that transition on more difficult so so that's that's another thing to keep in mind as well I did I did want to mention a couple of things cuz I forgot to mention on some of the other depression I think there were some some questions about like I talk with G and a caffeine and coffee and you know if that I talked about breaking does caffeine interfere with that research has shown that coffee and it can even be decaf coffee decaf coffee coffee scene it's a polyphenol that are in the coffee beans they actually activated animal but they actually play a role in activating at apogee itself stay because I can drink black coffee and I get even more benefits to a top 50
00:47:37that if it's unclear if you're getting more more benefits but yeah I think there is there does seem to be out there where it seems as though he may actually well this is Ben gray I know we only got to a fraction of the questions I hope we can do this again because the science is evolving into there's tons of new studies coming out I mean in 2019 I think you're on top of a bunch of new side snow coming out related to fasting and human studies Etc time restricted eating and fasting that dr. valter Longo assuming that's better than you know that that's ongoing so it's really exciting exciting and Morty coming out but I want to thank you and again for everyone who submitted questions thank you I'm I'm sorry we can get to the mall but hopefully we'll be back soon with the with with more updates and again Rhonda Patrick found my phone
00:48:37Dennis and check-out zero fasting and if you haven't downloaded it or listen to Rhonda's podcast please do so we'll put links in the show nuts and from San Diego that's it thank you thank you thanks for listening if you're interested in tracking your fasting and time restricted eating make sure to check out 0 on the Apple App Store or head over to their website at zero fasting. Cam will not mention before we go about the Kevin Rose connection I would be remiss if I didn't share that I recently was invited to talk to Kevin's wife dr. darya rose on her podcast we talked a lot about my recent paper on DHA and phospholipids form and its relevance potentially for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease we also talked about some fun pregnancy related topics and more you can find that episode by looking up darya's Podcast and grabbing it right off her feed the name of her podcast is foodist podcast once again that's foodist foodist podcast alternatively you can also head over to her website which is www
00:49:37summer tomato. Com once again that's www. Summer tomato. Com thanks for listening more episodes coming soon

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